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Ben J. Lee and Charles Douglas Thake

Context: Anecdotal reports suggest elite sports clubs combine lower-body positive-pressure rehabilitation with a hypoxic stimulus to maintain or increase physiological and metabolic strain, which are reduced during lower-body positive pressure. However, the effects of hypoxia on cardiovascular and metabolic response during lower-body positive-pressure rehabilitation are unknown. Objective: Evaluate the use of normobaric hypoxia as a means to increase physiological strain during body-weight-supported (BWS) running. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory. Participants: Seven familiarized males (mean (SD): age, 20 (1) y; height, 1.77 (0.05) m; mass, 69.4 (5.1) kg; hemoglobin, 15.2 (0.8) g·dL−1) completed a normoxic and hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen [O2] = 0.14) trial, during which they ran at 8 km·h−1 on an AlterG™ treadmill with 0%, 30%, and 60% BWS in a randomized order for 10 minutes interspersed with 5 minutes of recovery. Main Outcome Measures: Arterial O2 saturation, heart rate, O2 delivery, and measurements of metabolic strain via indirect calorimetry. Results: Hypoxic exercise reduced hemoglobin O2 saturation and elevated heart rate at each level of BWS compared with normoxia. However, the reduction in hemoglobin O2 saturation was attenuated at 60% BWS compared with 0% and 30%, and consequently, O2 delivery was better maintained at 60% BWS. Conclusion: Hypoxia is a practically useful means of increasing physiological strain during BWS rehabilitation. In light of the maintenance of hemoglobin O2 saturation and O2 delivery at increasing levels of BWS, fixed hemoglobin saturations rather than a fixed altitude are recommended to maintain an aerobic stimulus.

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Petra Stiegler, S. Andrew Sparks and Adam Cunliffe

Maximizing postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation could be of clinical relevance for the treatment of obesity. This study investigated the effect of prior exercise on energy expenditure and substrate utilization after meals containing varying amounts of macronutrients. Eight lean (11.6% ± 4.0% body fat, M ± SD) and 12 obese (35.9% ± 5.3% body fat) men were randomly assigned to a protein (43% protein, 30% carbohydrate) or a carbohydrate (10% protein, 63% carbohydrate) meal. The metabolic responses to the meals were investigated during 2 trials, when meals were ingested after a resting period (D) or cycling exercise (Ex+D; 65% of oxygen consumption reserve, 200 kcal). Energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and glucose and insulin responses were measured for 4 hr during the postprandial phase. Although postprandial energy expenditure was not affected by prior exercise, the total amount of fat oxidized was higher during Ex+D than during D (170.8 ± 60.1 g vs. 137.8 ± 50.8 g, p < .05), and, accordingly, the use of carbohydrate as substrate was decreased (136.4 ± 45.2 g vs. 164.0 ± 42.9 g, p < .05). After the protein meal fat-oxidation rates were higher than after carbohydrate intake (p < .05), an effect independent of prior exercise. Plasma insulin tended to be lower during Ex+D (p = .072) and after the protein meal (p = .066). No statistically significant change in postprandial blood glucose was induced by prior exercise. Exercising before meal consumption can result in a marked increase in fat oxidation, which is independent of the type of meal consumed.

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Dennis-Peter Born, Thomas Stöggl, Mikael Swarén and Glenn Björklund

Purpose:

To investigate the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response of trail running and evaluate whether heart rate (HR) adequately reflects the exercise intensity or if the tissue-saturation index (TSI) could provide a more accurate measure during running in hilly terrain.

Methods:

Seventeen competitive runners (4 women, V̇O2max, 55 ± 6 mL · kg–1 · min–1; 13 men, V̇O2max, 68 ± 6 mL · kg–1 · min–1) performed a time trial on an off-road trail course. The course was made up of 2 laps covering a total distance of 7 km and included 6 steep uphill and downhill sections with an elevation gain of 486 m. All runners were equipped with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer, HR belt, global positioning system receiver, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device to measure the TSI.

Results:

During the trail run, the exercise intensity in the uphill and downhill sections was 94% ± 2% and 91% ± 3% of maximal heart rate, respectively, and 84% ± 8% and 68% ± 7% of V̇O2max, respectively. The oxygen uptake (V̇O2) increased in the uphill sections and decreased in the downhill sections (P < .01). Although HR was unaffected by the altering slope conditions, the TSI was inversely correlated to the changes in V̇O2 (r = –.70, P < .05).

Conclusions:

HR was unaffected by the continuously changing exercise intensity; however, TSI reflected the alternations in V̇O2. Recently used exclusively for scientific purposes, this NIRS-based variable may offer a more accurate alternative than HR to monitor running intensity in the future, especially for training and competition in hilly terrain.

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Mark Russell, David Benton and Michael Kingsley

Purpose:

This study examined the effects of exercise-induced fatigue on soccer skills performed throughout simulated match play.

Methods:

Fifteen academy soccer players completed a soccer match simulation (SMS) including passing, dribbling, and shooting skills. Precision, success rate, and ball speed were determined via video analysis for all skills. Blood samples were obtained before exercise (preexercise), every 15 min during the simulation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min), and 10 min into half-time.

Results:

Preliminary testing confirmed test-retest repeatability of performance, physiological, and metabolic responses to 45 min of the SMS. Exercise influenced shooting precision (timing effect: P = .035) and passing speed (timing effect: P = .011), such that shots taken after exercise were 25.5 ± 4.0% less accurate than those taken before exercise and passes in the last 15 min were 7.8 ± 4.3% slower than in the first 15 min. Shot and pass speeds were slower during the second half compared with the first half (shooting: 17.3 ± 0.3 m·s-1 vs 16.6 ± 0.3 m·s-1, P = 0.012; passing: 13.0 ± 0.5 m·s-1 vs 12.2 ± 0.5 m·s-1, P = 0.039). Dribbling performance was unaffected by exercise. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above preexercise values throughout exercise (time of sample effect: P < .001).

Conclusions:

These findings demonstrate that soccer-specific exercise influenced the quality of performance in gross motor skills, such as passing and shooting. Therefore, interventions to maintain skilled performance during the second half of soccer match play are warranted.

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Anissa Cherif, Romain Meeusen, Abdulaziz Farooq, Joong Ryu, Mohamed Amine Fenneni, Zoran Nikolovski, Sittana Elshafie, Karim Chamari and Bart Roelands

Purpose:

To examine the effects of 3 d of intermittent fasting (3d-IF: abstaining from eating/drinking from dawn to sunset) on physical performance and metabolic responses to repeated sprints (RSs).

Methods:

Twenty-one active males performed an RS test (2 sets: 5 × 5-s maximal sprints with 25 s of recovery between and 3 min of recovery between sets on an instrumented treadmill) in 2 conditions: counterbalanced fed/control session (CS) and fasting session (FS). Biomechanical and biochemical markers were assessed preexercise and postexercise.

Results:

Significant main effects of IF were observed for sprints: maximal speed (P = .016), mean speed (P = .015), maximal power (P = .035), mean power (P = .049), vertical stiffness (P = .032), and vertical center-of-mass displacement (P = .047). Sprint speed and vertical stiffness decreased during the 1st (P = .003 and P = .005) and 2nd sprints (P = .046 and P = .048) of set 2, respectively. Postexercise insulin decreased in CS (P = .023) but not in FS (P = .230). Free-fatty-acid levels were higher in FS than in CS at preexercise (P < .001) and at postexercise (P = .009). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher at postexercise in FS (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol/L) than in CS (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L, P = .039). The triglyceride (TG) concentration was decreased in FS (P < .05) compared with CS.

Conclusions:

3d-IF impaired speed and power through a decrease in vertical stiffness during the initial runs of the 2nd set of RS. The findings of the current study confirmed the benefits of 3d-IF: improved HDL-C and TG profiles while maintaining total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, improving muscle power might be a key factor to retain a higher vertical stiffness and to partly counteract the negative effects of intermittent fasting.

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Tanja Oosthuyse, Matthew Carstens and Aletta M.E. Millen

Certain commercial carbohydrate replacement products include slowly absorbed carbohydrates such as isomaltulose. Few studies have investigated the metabolic effects of ingesting isomaltulose during exercise and none have evaluated exercise performance and gastrointestinal comfort. Nine male cyclists participated postprandially during three trials of 2-h steady-state (S-S) exercise (60% W max) followed by a 16 km time trial (TT) while ingesting 63 g∙h-1 of either, 0.8:1 fructose: maltodextrin (F:M) or isomaltulose (ISO) or placebo-flavored water (PL). Data were analyzed by magnitude-based inferences. During S-S exercise, ISO and PL similarly increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration (mean change ISO versus F:M: 0.18, 90%CI ± 0.21 mmol∙L-1, 88% likelihood) and fat oxidation (10, 90%CI ± 9 g, 89% likelihood) while decreasing carbohydrate oxidation (-36, 90%CI ± 30.2 g, 91% likelihood) compared with F:M, despite equal elevations in blood glucose concentration with ISO and F:M. Rating of stomach cramps and bloating increased progressively with ISO (rating: 0-90 min S-S, weak; 120 min S-S, moderate; TT, strong) compared with F:M and PL (0-120 min S-S and TT, very weak). TT performance was substantially slower with ISO (mean change: 1.5, 90%CI ± 1.4 min, 94% likely harmful) compared with F:M. The metabolic response of ISO ingestion during moderate exercise to increase NEFA availability and fat oxidation despite elevating blood glucose concentration is anomalous for a carbohydrate supplement. However, ingesting isomaltulose at a continuous high frequency to meet the recommended carbohydrate replacement dose, results in severe gastrointestinal symptoms during prolonged or high intensity exercise and negatively affects exercise performance compared with fructose-maltodextrin supplementation.

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Colin R. Carriker, Christine M. Mermier, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Kelly E. Johnson, Nicholas M. Beltz, Roger A. Vaughan, James J. McCormick, Nathan H. Cole, Christopher C. Witt and Ann L. Gibson

Reduced partial pressure of oxygen impairs exercise performance at altitude. Acute nitrate supplementation, at sea level, may reduce oxygen cost during submaximal exercise in hypobaric hypoxia. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic response during exercise at altitude following acute nitrate consumption. Ten well-trained (61.0 ± 7.4 ml/kg/min) males (age 28 ± 7 yr) completed 3 experimental trials (T1, T2, T3). T1 included baseline demographics, a maximal aerobic capacity test (VO2max) and five submaximal intensity cycling determination bouts at an elevation of 1600 m. A 4-day dietary washout, minimizing consumption of nitrate-rich foods, preceded T2 and T3. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, subjects consumed either a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PL) or ~12.8 mmol nitrate rich (NR) beverage 2.5 hr before T2 and T3. Exercise at 3500 m (T2 and T3) via hypobaric hypoxia consisted of a 5-min warm-up (25% of normobaric (VO2max) and four 5-min cycling bouts (40, 50, 60, 70% of normobaric VO2max) each separated by a 4-min rest period. Cycling RPM and watts for each submaximal bout during T2 and T3 were determined during T1. Preexercise plasma nitrite was elevated following NR consumption compared with PL (1.4 ± 1.2 and 0.7 ± 0.3 uM respectively; p < .05). There was no difference in oxygen consumption (−0.5 ± 1.8, 0.1 ± 1.7, 0.7 ± 2.1, and 1.0 ± 3.0 ml/kg/min) at any intensity (40, 50, 60, 70% of VO2max), respectively) between NR and PL. Further, respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen saturation, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were not different at any submaximal intensity between NR and PL either. Blood lactate, however, was reduced following NR consumption compared with PL at 40 and 60% of VO2max (p < .0.05). Our findings suggest that acute nitrate supplementation before exercise at 3500 m does not reduce oxygen cost but may reduce blood lactate accumulation at lower intensity workloads.

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Gustavo Monnerat, Carlos A.R. Sánchez, Caleb G.M. Santos, Dailson Paulucio, Rodolfo Velasque, Geisa P.C. Evaristo, Joseph A.M. Evaristo, Fabio C.S. Nogueira, Gilberto B. Domont, Mauricio Serrato, Antonio S. Lima, David Bishop, Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho and Fernando A.M.S. Pompeu

’ level of variations in metabolic pathways. 13 In this context, targeted metabolomics has been applied to better understand the metabolic responses to exercise including different metabolic pathways of lipolysis, glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and purine metabolism according to the physical fitness level

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Daniel Boullosa, César C.C. Abad, Valter P. Reis, Victor Fernandes, Claudio Castilho, Luis Candido, Alessandro M. Zagatto, Lucas A. Pereira and Irineu Loturco

protocol in the warm-up. Interestingly, this finding was not accompanied by any change in the metabolic response during the tests (ie, lactate). Previous studies with cyclists performing heavy resistance exercises in the warm-up reported better cycling performance 4 , 5 and metabolic responses, 4 but

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin

participant. Data were then entered into a datasheet using SPSS Statistics 21.0 (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY). Nonparametric analyses comparing medians and distributions (Kruskal–Wallis) among groups were performed for physical characteristics, metabolic responses, and ventilatory responses during ambulatory