The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ethnic and racial composition of male and female basketball players in the First Division of the English National Basketball League during the 1996/97 season. The secondary purpose was to compare the racial composition of players by playing position. Finally, a subsidiary purpose was to describe the racial and gender composition of coaches and assistant coaches in the women’s National Basketball League. Data were collated from team rosters of all teams comprising the First Division of the women’s and men’s National Basketball League in the 1996/97 season. The ethnic and racial designation of players (N = 270) and coaches (N = 23) was established from information supplied by each club or from individual players. There were significant differences in participation rates for British male and female players; there was an over-representation of black females in the forward position, and an over-representation of white male coaches in women’s teams. The present findings reflect the limited participation rates of females in general, and more specifically, the limited participation rates of women from ethnic minority groups.
Robert H. Chappell and Costas I. Karageorghis
Howard L. Nixon II
Despite the stigma usually attached to disabled people, and the attendant difficulty in picturing disabled people in “normal” societal roles interacting and competing with nondisabled people, a mandate for integrating disabled and nondisabled people in all areas of society has been thrust upon Americans during the past decade through judicial, legal, and social pressures and political action. This paper focuses on the appropriate integration of disabled and nondisabled people in sport. It considers some potentially salient personal attribute and background parameters (i.e., type and severity of disability and amount of sports background) and sports structure parameters (i.e., type of sport, amount of disability adaptation, and degree of competition) that could affect the extent to which integration efforts in sport result in genuine integration and a reduction in the stigmatization and handicapped minority status of disabled people. It is hoped that this paper, and the general hypotheses it proposes about appropriate integration, will serve to guide future research and informed action in program planning and implementation aimed at integrating disabled and nondisabled people in sport.
René Girard’s “Mimetic Theory” of violence categorizes the victim depending on the level of consciousness that the community has of the conflict and the innocence of the victim(s). Academic research applying scapegoating theories to conflict resolution in sport has not categorized the victim. However, classifying each scapegoat is important to understand both the conflict and the social circumstances that may have ignited the violence towards the innocent minority or individual. This paper identifies four historical instances of Girard’s scapegoat categories in sport, including athletes in ancient Greece, the Black Sox game-fixing scandal, Lance Armstrong’s exclusion from cycling, and Cubs’ fan Steve Bartman. The paper uses Girard’s theory to determine the possible causes of each instance of victimization and describes both how the scapegoat mechanism operated and its violent conclusion. Thoughtful analysis of the causes of each conflict and the social environment that ignited the victimization process and of the similarities between them is an important step towards finding a solution to sport violence. This analysis also provides a tool to potentially foresee conflict and prevent instability and violence in sport.
George B. Cunningham and Calvin Nite
& Cunningham, 2012 ). Inclusiveness is particularly important for LGBT individuals playing on teams or working in the sport. Inclusive leadership, for instance, is important to LGBT athletes during the sexual orientation disclosure process ( Fink, Burton, Farrell, & Parker, 2012 ). Sexual minority athletes who
Lauren C. Hindman and Nefertiti A. Walker
’ (and girls’) club While the women discussed how close they felt to their coworkers, they also described how gender segregation was practiced in their offices. Some of the women were very much in the minority in their organizations, such as Ann, who previously worked for a professional team where she
10.1123/ssj.1.2.150 Minority Managers in Professional Baseball David Fabianic 6 1984 1 2 163 171 10.1123/ssj.1.2.163 Sportpolitics: Los Angeles, 1984 — “The Olympic Tradition Continues” Harry Edwards * 6 1984 1 2 172 183 10.1123/ssj.1.2.172 The Creation of Appropriate Integration Opportunities in
Research The Social Logic of Boxing in Black Chicago: Toward a Sociology of Pugilism Loïc J.D. Wacquant * 9 1992 9 3 221 254 10.1123/ssj.9.3.221 Sports and Immigrant, Minority and Anglo Relations in Garden City (Kansas) High School Mark A. Grey * 9 1992 9 3 255 270 10.1123/ssj.9
19 19 1 1 Original Research Article The Impact of Sports Participation on Violence and Victimization among Rural Minority Adolescent Girls Matthew J. Taylor * Rachel A. Wamser Michelle E. Sanchez Charleanea M. Arellano 4 2010 19 19 1 1 3 3 13 13 10.1123/wspaj.19.1.3 Reaganism and the
Contact with Sexual Minorities George B. Cunningham * Nicole Melton * 9 2012 29 3 283 305 10.1123/ssj.29.3.283 Saturday Night’s Alright for Tweeting: Cultural Citizenship, Collective Discussion, and the New Media Consumption/Production of Hockey Day in Canada Mark Norman * 9 2012 29 3 306 324 10
Report & Minority Report Athena Yiamouyiannis 4 2003 12 12 1 1 127 127 130 130 10.1123/wspaj.12.1.127 NAGWS 4 2003 12 12 1 1 131 131 132 132 10.1123/wspaj.12.1.131 Book Review Book Review Robert W. Pettitt MS, ATC, CSCS Cherie Kroh MS, CSCS, HFI 4 2003 12 12 1 1 133 133 134 134 10.1123/wspaj.12