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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

accurate for evaluating muscle size. 4 Future researchers should also consider measuring muscular torque or force output before and after BFR. Only 1 study in this review evaluated knee-extensor and knee-flexor torques. 2 Ohta et al 2 reported significant improvements in both knee torques in the BFR

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Emily E. Kruithof, Spencer A. Thomas and Patricia Tripp

reported that the addition of BFR to dynamic, low-load training amplifies changes in muscle hypertrophy and strength. While these changes occur quickly, training programs greater than 6 weeks allow for the greatest gains. A prospective study, looking at the effects of BFR on muscle size and strength

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Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Robert S. Thiebaud and Mark Loftin

associated with difference in forearm muscle size . J Phys Ther Sci . 2015 ; 27 : 2147 – 2149 . PubMed ID: 26311942 doi:10.1589/jpts.27.2147 26311942 10.1589/jpts.27.2147 17. Weir JP . Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM . J Strength Cond Res

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Ashley A. Herda, Brianna D. McKay, Trent J. Herda, Pablo B. Costa, Jeffrey R. Stout and Joel T. Cramer

, P. , Larvin , M. , Lund , J. , & Narici , M. ( 2012 ). Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; A quantitative review . Frontiers in Physiology, 3 , Article 260 . doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00260 Moher , D. , Hopewell , S

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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed

neurological and morphological factors, not just increases in muscle size ( Folland & Williams, 2007 ). These factors may not be influenced by protein source or overall protein intake ( Reidy et al., 2016 ). Second, in two of the nine studies included in the meta-analysis, soy protein was compared with milk

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

Changes in Masters Athletes Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and strength/function that is collectively referred to as sarcopenia. Muscle size and strength generally peaks at 20–30 years and begins to decline in middle age (∼40 to 50 years), with an acceleration in older adulthood (generally

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Hitoshi Koda, Yoshihiro Kai, Shin Murata, Hironori Osugi, Kunihiko Anami, Takahiko Fukumoto and Hidetaka Imagita

), 119 – 125 . PubMed ID: 11937474 doi:10.1093/ageing/31.2.119 10.1093/ageing/31.2.119 Suetta , C. , Aagaard , P. , Magnusson , S.P. , Andersen , L.L. , Sipilä , S. , Rosted , A. , … Kjaer , M. ( 2007 ). Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men

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Ammar Nebigh, Mohamed Elfethi Abed, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Slaheddine Sellami, Zouhair Tabka and Haithem Rebai

drive a direct osteogenic effect and follow the mechanical loadings throughout an indirect osteogenic effect by increasing muscle size and forces generated on bones ( 34 ). In this context, when practicing intense loading exercises that generate high mechanical muscle strain, high formation marker (BAP

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Scott J. Dankel, Jeremy P. Loenneke and Paul D. Loprinzi

, Gordish-Dressman H , Thompson PD , et al . Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2005 ; 37 ( 6 ): 964 – 972 . PubMed 15947721 20. Dankel SJ , Loenneke JP , Loprinzi PD . Participation in muscle-strengthening activities

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Bruce M. Lima, Rafael S. Amancio, Diacre S. Gonçalves, Alexander J. Koch, Victor M. Curty and Marco Machado

over the training period. In addition to a similar volume load lifted, load reductions (RED 5 and RED 10) yielded similar improvements in strength and muscle size to CON. Subjects in RED 10 experienced a significantly lower perception of effort, despite the completion of every set to volitional fatigue