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Leslee A. Fisher

Nassar’s abuse included (a) a toxic and corrosive versus respectful athlete environment, (b) sex-based discrimination and misogyny as the norm which normalized inappropriate conduct directed at female athletes by men in power, (c) those with the most power (i.e., coaches, sport medicine doctors) were the

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Gareth McNarry, Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson and Adam B. Evans

interaction. Spencer ( 2012 ), too, notes how through intense MMA training, pain becomes normalized and often experienced at a much lower intensity, allowing fighters to “push past” muscle soreness and manageable injuries. More specific to aquatic pursuits, Throsby ( 2016 ) addresses the “discomfort” and good

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Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston

reflect on various aspects of their health. We suggest that such responses further highlight the normalization of scientific ways of knowing within the high performance sport environment. As noted previously, the purpose of the interviews (and the broader project) was not to focus explicitly on ethnicity

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Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope and John Williams

’s football enjoyed a surge in popularity during the First World War, following it, there were calls for a return to the “normalization” of the sexual division of labor ( Dunn & Welford, 2015 ). In 1921, the English Football Association announced that the game was “unsuitable” for women, and its member clubs

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Nikolas Dickerson

from smoking pot, while the use of marijuana by white athletes in mostly white sports (such as snowboarding) is often celebrated and normalized. Thus, press coverage of the marijuana-using black athlete has worked to constitute and preserve the criminal and selfish label as a legible form of black

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Philippe Vonnard and Sébastien Cala

federations’ stances on the “German Question” at the end of World War II and their decisions to recognize the GDR’s Football and Skiing Sections. Finally, we look at the GDR’s position within FIFA and the FIS during the 1950s and discuss the main issues involved in “normalizing” this position. Between

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Cheryl A. MacDonald

-feminine—as hypermasculinity implies. Hegemonic masculinity is a masculinity type that Connell’s ( 2005 ) used to signify the socially constructed hierarchical classification of masculinities in the Western world. 3 Specifically, as the type at the top of the hierarchy, it refers to a normalizing ideology of gender relations

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Nicole Johnson, Katie Hanna, Julie Novak and Angelo P. Giardino

have historically had access to children without the barrier of safeguarding practices, allowing more opportunities for abuse to occur ( Owton & Sparkes, 2017 ). In the grooming process, the abuser typically normalizes increasingly inappropriate behavior with their victim, progressing from what appear

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body image in promoting and preventing women from engaging in exercise. Examples of how to improve body image that are relevant to women who exercise were to be considered. These included focusing on health and nutritional needs rather than body weight, normalizing healthy eating, encouraging women to

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C. Keith Harrison, Rhema Fuller, Whitney Griffin, Scott Bukstein, Danielle McArdle and Steven Barnhart

marginalized groups as a means of critiquing the perpetuation of racial stereotypes in normalized dialogue (counter-storytelling), (b) the realistic view that racism is endemic and indelible in American sociocultural structure (permanence of racism), (c) access to high-quality education as exclusive to white