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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

expertise required to identify and implement these solutions is often beyond the scope of a specific organization 6 and requires involvement of both decision makers in a community and those affected by the decisions. 7 Close coordination among decision makers and community members is particularly vital in

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Lynley Ingerson and Michael L. Naraine

financially viable and more successful than their near town rivals the Toronto Raptors, Cleveland Cavaliers, and New York Knicks. In order for this franchise to succeed, it needs to attract a talented and innovative group of sport managers that are suitable for the organization and the city of Buffalo

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Holly Thorpe and Megan Chawansky

Africa. Although the project currently operates in three countries and includes both boys and girls, we pay particular attention to issues around gender as it relates to women’s work experiences in Afghanistan, a site at which the organization has won a number of international awards for its innovative

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Susen M. MacMillan

In Canada, amateur athletes who receive government funding in support of their training are required to sign an agreement with the respective sport organization in order to qualify for the assistance. This illustrates how legal practices are increasingly being used in sport. It is important for participants in sport to understand what the legal elements of such practices are in order to identify those situations in which they have been applied properly, inaccurately , or inappropriately. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the content of the agreements signed by Canadian athletes and the procedures by which they are implemented. The result of this analysis is a list of issues that athletes and administrators may wish to address or improve in order to provide a more fair agreement between the parties.

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Daniel Soucie

By virtue of their formal role in sport organizations, sport administrators are responsible for empowering subordinates to establish and achieve goals. The extent of their leadership skills will largely dictate the outcome of their actions with subordinates. After nearly a century of research on leadership, the question still remains as to what makes an effective leader. There are no absolute truths and no general panaceas about effective managerial leadership. However, a careful review of the literature reveals that a lot more is known about this topic than is usually acknowledged. The purpose of this article is to (a) express a perspective regarding leadership, (b) draw lessons from the leadership literature, (c) gain insights from research about leadership effectiveness, and (d) infer from this literature prescriptions for practicing sport administrators. The article reviews the research literature that pertains to (a) leadership influence and power, (b) leadership traits and skills, (c) leadership behaviors, (d) situational leadership, and (e) charismatic and transformational leadership.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele

work with physical educators who are unsupportive and may unknowingly employ exclusionary teaching practices ( Haegele & Zhu, 2017 ). Thus, the purpose of this study was to extend the research on the socialization of PE teachers by examining the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS

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Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin and Matthew Walker

Despite anecdotal claims attesting to the influence that social responsiveness has on the purchase behaviors of consumers, this article examined if a specific initiative could result in such outcomes. We investigated the extent to which the Drive for Diversity (D4D) initiative affected consumers’ perceived image and patronage directed toward NASCAR. This study was partially motivated by the importance of social initiatives in practice to underscore their influence on customer-related outcomes. As such, the findings indicated that the NASCAR’s D4D and the perceived image of the organization are key variables in the model. The results also highlighted the mediating role of image and the moderating role of identification on the proposed relationship. More specifically, the authors found that the socially responsive initiative only moderately influenced consumers’ intentions but when coupled with the image of the organization, this relationship became far more impactful.

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Alison J. Doherty and Packianathan Chelladurai

The article focuses on the management and impact of cultural diversity in sport organizations. It is proposed that the potentially constructive or destructive impact of cultural diversity is a function of the management of that diversity, which is ultimately a reflection of organizational culture, or “how things are done around here.” Organizational culture is described along a continuum of valuing similarity and diversity in the organization. It is argued that the benefits of cultural diversity (e.g., creativity, challenge, constructive conflict) will be realized when an organizational culture of diversity underlies the management of that diversity. These benefits are heightened when the situation dictates a high degree of task interdependence and complexity. Implications for increasing cultural diversity and developing an organizational culture that values that diversity, as a social responsibility and a contributing force to organizational performance, are discussed.

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Sue Inglis

Limited empirical data on the roles associated with boards of directors in nonprofit organizations are available, yet understanding the work of boards is vital to ensure the roles desired by organizational members and the roles required by the organization are being fulfilled. The roles or functions of boards in nonprofit organizations, as found in the management literature, were used to explore the roles associated with a sample of nonprofit amateur sport organizations. Data were generated from a survey of executive directors, volunteer presidents, and volunteer board members of sport organizations housed at Ontario's Provincial Sport Centre in Toronto. The survey data yielded a 4-factor subscale providing support for a theoretical perspective in assessing roles of the board in mission, planning, executive director, and community relations areas. Similarities and differences of respondents by gender and position on ratings of importance and performance for the board roles were explored with implications for board development discussed.

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Marion E. Hambrick and Per G. Svensson

Sport organizations can use social media to build relationships with current and potential stakeholders. These opportunities are pertinent for smaller niche and sport-for-development-and-peace (SDP) organizations, which rarely receive the same media and consumer attention as their larger, more mainstream counterparts. This study examined the role of social media with 1 SDP organization and used qualitative data collection and analysis to explore what social-media platforms the staff members selected, how they used these platforms, and what benefits and challenges they faced with this use. Their identified social-media activities were 3-fold: disseminating news, promoting events, and educating stakeholders. Some hurdles arose with this use, in particular attempting to engage readers in conversations and ensuring that the posted messages uniformly relayed organizational goals. SDP and other organizations can use social media to achieve communication objectives but should recognize the potential challenges associated with these efforts.