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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

The quantification of training load (TL) is a common practice in basketball, with the aim to ensure that players achieve an adequate training stimulus and to reduce the negative consequences of training (ie, risk of injury and nonfunctional overreaching) and the chances of undertraining. 1 , 2 The

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

advised to use ∼250 ml. Training All runners were set to complete 11 training sessions, excluding the two TTs. No additional training was allowed. The training was planned for each individual pair of runners to challenge their training status without increasing the risk of overreaching and injuries. Two

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

program and minimizing their risk of nonfunctional overreaching, injury, and illness. 4 In the last decade, studies have attempted to address the physiological responses of SS athletes during different types of training. 5 , 6 The variables that have been most frequently investigated include blood

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster

state of nonfunctional overreaching. Under these circumstances, the isolated assessment of HR or PO at a fixed submaximal PO or HR, respectively, may lead to misinterpretation of cyclists’ training status. However, if the RPE is taken into consideration, an increased score at a fixed PO or a decreased

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Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

are an important symptom of overreaching or overtraining in athletes, as a result of increased training load or changes in training schedule ( 18 ). Compared with a general Icelandic sample, the swimmers have a slightly higher number of WASO minutes and lower sleep efficiency ( 24 ). In particular

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Durva Vahia, Adam Kelly, Harry Knapman and Craig A. Williams

nonfunctional overreaching and overtraining compared with recreational players ( 22 ). The Long-Term Athlete Development model classifies players aged 16–18 as in the “training to compete” phase of development with highly structured training ( 12 , 21 ). At this age, players are still developing their physical

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Miranda J. Menaspà, Paolo Menaspà, Sally A. Clark and Maurizio Fanchini

future. Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017 ; 12 ( suppl 2 ): 22 – 28 . PubMed ID: 28253038 doi:10.1123/IJSPP.2016-0388 10.1123/IJSPP.2016-0388 23. Piacentini MF , Meeusen R . An online training-monitoring system to prevent nonfunctional overreaching . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2015 ; 10

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Romain Meeusen and Maria Francesca Piacentini

-distance swimmers . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2005 ; 94 ( 5–6 ): 697 – 704 . PubMed ID: 15887025 doi:10.1007/s00421-005-1337-0 15887025 10.1007/s00421-005-1337-0 6. Piacentini MF , Meeusen R . An online training-monitoring system to prevent nonfunctional overreaching . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2015

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

calendar based on the health of individual athletes. d. Monitor for early signs and symptoms of overreaching, overtraining, and illness. e. Avoid intensive training when ill or experiencing early signs and symptoms of illness. f. Participate in current illness surveillance systems by sport agencies. 2

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira and António N. Rebelo

-4707.16.06322-2 26997322 9. Le Meur Y , Pichon A , Schaal K , et al . Evidence of parasympathetic hyperactivity in functionally overreached athletes . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2013 ; 45 : 2061 – 2071 . doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182980125 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182980125 10. Bellenger CR , Karavirta L , Thomson