This paper offers a brief response to the article of Bouffard (2001), which in itself was a reaction to two earlier papers published by the present author (Shephard, 1998, 1999). Bouffard makes a vigorous attack on his perceptions of my observations concerning the use of jargon, the primacy of the scientific method, and postmodernism. Unfortunately, his perceptions of my arguments are not always substantiated by a careful reading of the text. Many of the world’s social ills are rashly attributed uniquely to rationalism. No viable alternatives to the scientific method are suggested, and self-criticism of the postmodern approach is less than optimal. Nevertheless, the paper is to be welcomed, both as a challenge to continuing perfection of evidence-based science and as providing an insight into the thinking of those who espouse the postmodernist philosophy.
Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Paula A. Quatromoni
The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the onset of eating disorders in female athletes. Participants were 17 collegiate female athletes (mean age of 20.7) who experienced eating disorders. Participants were interviewed individually and responses were coded thematically. Results revealed internal and external factors related to the onset of eating disorders. Internal factors included: Negative Mood States, Low Self Esteem, Perfectionism/Drive for Achievement, and Desire for Control. External factors included: Negative Influences on Self-Esteem, Hurtful Relationships, Hurtful Role Models, and Sport Performance. Findings suggest that many triggers for onset among athletes are similar to those reported among nonathletes. However, results demonstrate that the sport environment has a unique impact on athletes’ eating disorder development. In particular, negative comments by coaches, modeling of eating disordered behaviors by other athletes, and sport performance pressure all contributed to eating pathology. Implications and recommendations for the sport community are discussed.
Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews and Scott Fleming
This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.
Keith A. Kaufman, Carol R. Glass and Diane B. Arnkoff
The construct of mindfulness appears to be compatible with theories of flow and peak performance in sport. The present study assessed how Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE), a new 4-week program, affected flow states, performance, and psychological characteristics of 11 archers and 21 golfers from the community. Participants completed trait measures of anxiety, perfectionism, thought disruption, confidence, mindfulness, and flow. They additionally provided data on their performances and state levels of mindfulness and flow. Analyses revealed that some significant changes in dimensions of the trait variables occurred during the training. Levels of state flow attained by the athletes also increased between the first and final sessions. The findings suggest that MSPE is a promising intervention to enhance flow, mindfulness, and aspects of sport confidence. An expanded workshop to allot more time for mindfulness practice is recommended for future studies.
Steven Paul Coen and Benjamin M. Ogles
Several aspects of obligatory running are examined with particular emphasis on the anorexia analogue hypothesis. The psychometric characteristics of the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire were examined in a preliminary study. The OEQ is unrelated to socially desirable responding and has adequate reliability and validity. Data were collected from a second sample to identify obligatory and nonobligatory runners. Validation of the obligatory construct is examined by comparing demographic and training differences between obligatory and nonobligatory runners. Obligatory runners train more miles, days, and hours per week; have faster finishing times; are more likely to continue running when injured; and report feeling higher levels of anxiety when not running. The anorexia analogue hypothesis is examined by comparing the personality characteristics of obligatory and nonobligatory male marathon runners. Obligatory and nonobligatory runners were not significantly different on measures of identity diffusion or trait anger. They were significantly different on measures of perfectionism and trait anxiety.
Megan Brannan, Trent A. Petrie, Christy Greenleaf, Justine Reel and Jennifer Carter
In this study, we extended past research (Brannan & Petrie, 2008; Tylka, 2004) by examining perfectionism, optimism, self-esteem, and reasons for exercising as moderators of the body dissatisfaction-bulimic symptoms relationship among female collegiate athletes (N= 204). Hierarchical moderated regression was used to control for social desirability and physical size and then tested the main and interactive effects of the models. Body dissatisfaction was related to the measure of bulimic symptoms, accounting for 24% of the variance. Four variables were statistically significant as moderators. More concern over mistakes and being motivated to exercise to improve appearance and attractiveness or to socialize and improve mood increased the strength of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. Self-esteem had a buffering effect that resulted in a weakened relationship.
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Mary Jung, Larkin Lamarche, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson
website: http://www.j-humansciences.com/#gsc.tab=0 Author website: https://personel.omu.edu.tr/tr/hatice.eplikoc Exercising for Weight Control Links Perfectionism With Eating Pathology in Adult Athletes Compared with the general population, eating disorders afflict a disproportionately large number of
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
.evalprogplan.2017.08.001 Journal website: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/evaluation-and-program-planning/ Author website: https://health.uottawa.ca/people/arellano-alexandra Self-Critical Perfectionists Struggle to Praise Themselves Even When They Succeed Perfectionism is a multidimensional construct widely
Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
Edited by Kim Gammage
://exss.unc.edu/faculty-staff/zachary-kerr/ Is More Better? Perfectionism, Burnout, and Stress in Specialized and Multisport College Athletes The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among perfectionism, stress, and burnout in specialized and multisport college athletes. Burnout is prevalent in athletes who perceive sport as
studies of sports leagues and governing bodies in relation to their resistance to and adopting of video review. The struggle or tension underlying Grano’s critique is between the human essence of sport and the “soulless perfection” of technology, in this case the “mechanical witnessing” of video replays