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Bruno Ferreira Viana, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Allan Inoue and Tony Meireles Santos

performance test; VO 2 peak, peak oxygen uptake; W peak , power output at VO 2 peak. Experimental Design The athletes visited the laboratory for 3 different sessions. The first session consisted of anthropometric measurements and a cycling MIT. In the second session athletes were familiarized with the

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

Wingate anaerobic test, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, and field-based fitness battery tests (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], sit-ups, agility test, and pacer) were assessed for physical performance. Test–retest reliability was performed with 7-day intervals before the experiment. Intraclass

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Cody R. Smith, Cory L. Butts, J.D. Adams, Matthew A. Tucker, Nicole E. Moyen, Matthew S. Ganio and Brendon P. McDermott

humidity the first day, and 31.3°C (2.9°C) and 62.8% (5.6%) the second day. Trials consisted of (in this particular order) 30 minutes of self-paced exercise (Frisbee or soccer) in groups of 4 to 6 participants, 15 minutes of cooling (treatment 1, T 1 ), athletic-based exercise performance testing (timed 5

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

deficiency, as evidenced by reduced metabolic rate, inability to complete performance tests, marked alterations to endocrine hormones, and hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, the extreme dehydration was experienced in the final 20 hr prior to weigh-in-induced hypernatremia and acute kidney injury. Our data

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Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, Peter Krustrup, Carlo Castagna, Pedro Miguel Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Rita Liliana Mendes Pereira and Malte Nejst Larsen

training for overweight adolescents: program acceptance of a media supported intervention and changes in body composition . Int J Environ Res Public Health . 2016 ; 13 ( 11 ): 1099 . doi:10.3390/ijerph13111099 10.3390/ijerph13111099 29. Hopkins WG . How to interpret changes in an athletic performance

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Owen Spendiff and Ian G. Campbell

Eight men with spinal cord injury ingested glucose (CHO) or placebo (PLA) 20-min prior to exercise. Participants performed arm crank ergometry for one-hour at 65% V̇O2peak, followed by a 20-min performance test in which athletes were asked to achieve their greatest possible distance. Physiological responses during the one-hour tests were similar between CHO and PLA trials. At the onset of exercise, the CHO trial blood glucose concentrations were higher than PLA (p < .05) but returned to resting values after 20-min exercise. Respiratory exchange ratio responses during the CHO trial were indicative of a higher rate of CHO oxidation (p < .05). A greater distance (km) was covered in the 20-min performance tests after CHO ingestion (p < .05). Results show preingestion of glucose improves endurance performance of wheelchair athletes.

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Renee A. Dalton, Janet Walberg Rankin, Don Sebolt and Frank Gwazdauskas

The effect of acute carbohydrate consumption on performance and metabolism of resistance-trained males was determined. Twenty-two subjects, assigned to either carbohydrate (C, n = 8), placebo (P, n - 8), or control (N, n = 6), performed standardized workouts every other day for a week prior to testing and throughout the testing period. Three of these workouts (Tl, T2, and T3) were the performance test in that the last bouts of leg extension and bench press were done to failure at 80% of 10 repetition maximum. A carbohydrate or placebo beverage was consumed 30 min prior to T3. Blood samples were drawn before and after T2 and T3. There was no effect of carbohydrate or energy restriction on number of repetitions done during the leg extension performance test. Carbohydrate intake prior to a resistance exercise bout done in negative energy balance state did not affect performance or evidence of muscle damage.

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Rodney Negrete and Jay Brophy

Objectives:

To determine (1) correlations between isokinetic lower extremity strength and functional performance and (2) correlations among different modes of isokinetic testing.

Design and Setting:

A correlational design with 6 measures. A series of strength, power, and agility tests was performed at a hospital-based outpatient physical therapy clinic.

Participants:

A volunteer sample of 29 male and 31 female, college-age subjects participated.

Measurements:

All subjects were tested in the following isokinetic tests: reciprocal leg press, single-leg squat, and knee extension. Performance tests included single-leg hop and vertical jump and a speed/agility test.

Results:

Analysis showed isokinetic knee extension, leg press, and single-leg squat strength significantly correlated to all functional tests. There were significant correlations among the 3 different isokinetic strength measures, as well.

Conclusions:

These results suggest a significant relationship between lower extremity open and closed chain isokinetic strength and functional performance testing.

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Iñigo Mujika, Juanma Santisteban, Paco Angulo and Sabino Padilla

A 7-week, 10-session individual training program was implemented with a youth elite football (soccer) player who had been underperforming because of poor aerobic fitness. The intervention focused on developing aerobic power and high lactate production and contributed to a 32.3% improvement in a football-specific performance test. The player was able to return to play and exceed expected performance levels during competitive match play.

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Yoshiko Hasebe, Yoshie Tanabe and Kazunori Yasuda

Context:

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with doubled hamstring autograft might not sufficiently improve fundamental sports abilities of patients with ACL-deficient knees.

Objective:

To clarify whether ACL reconstruction using the hamstring graft can improve fundamental sports abilities.

Design:

Patients were examined twice, preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively, using the conventional evaluation scales and performance tests.

Participants:

15 athletic patients with ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft.

Measurements:

A stairs-run test and figure-8 one-leg hop test. Muscle strength and knee stability were measured with Cybex® II and KT-2000® arthrometers, respectively.

Results:

There were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative results in the performance tests. The degree of postoperative recovery in the subjective score, the anterior translation of the tibia, and the isokinetic muscle strength was not significantly correlated with the degree of restoration in each performance test.

Conclusions:

Postoperative restoration as measured by conventional evaluation scales is not correlated with restoration of sports abilities in patients with ACL insufficiency.