Initially designed by Charles L. Sterling as a physical fitness “report card” FITNESSGRAM ® / ACTIVITYGRAM ® is now an educational assessment and reporting software program. Based on physiological/epidemiological, behavioral, and pedagogical research, FITNESSGRAM is committed to health-related physical fitness, criterion-referenced standards, an emphasis on physical activity including behavioral based recognitions, and the latest in technology. The evolution of these major concepts is described in this history of FITNESSGRAM.
Sharon A. Plowman, Charles L. Sterling, Charles B. Corbin, Marilu D. Meredith, Gregory J. Welk and James R. Morrow Jr.
Sarah M. Camhi, Susan B. Sisson, William D. Johnson, Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Catrine Tudor-Locke
Objective physical activity data analyses focus on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) without considering lower intensity lifestyle-type activities (LA). We describe 1) quantity of LA (minutes and steps per day) across demographic groups, 2) proportion of LA to total physical activity, and 3) relationships between LA and MVPA using NHANES 2005−2006 accelerometer adult data (n = 3744).
LA was defined as 760 to 2019 counts per minute (cpm) and MVPA as ≥2020 cpm. LA was compared within gender, ethnicity, age, and BMI groups. Regression analyses examined independent effects. Correlations were evaluated between LA and MVPA. All analyses incorporated sampling weights to represent national estimates.
Adults spent 110.4 ± 1.6 minutes and took 3476 ± 54 steps per day in LA. Similar to MVPA, LA was highest in men, Mexican Americans, and lowest in adults ≥60 years or obese. When LA was held constant, ethnic differences no longer predicted MVPA minutes, and age no longer predicted MVPA steps. LA and MVPA minutes (r = .84) and steps per day (r = .72) were significantly correlated, but attenuated with MVPA modified bouts (≥10 minutes sustained activity).
LA accumulation differs between demographic subgroups and is related to MVPA: adults who spend more minutes and steps in MVPA also spend them in LA.
Marie Tierney, Alexander Fraser and Norelee Kennedy
Physical activity is associated with improved health outcomes in many populations. It is assumed that physical activity levels in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population may be reduced as a result of symptoms of the disease. The objective of this review is to establish the current evidence base for levels of physical activity in the RA population.
A systematic review was performed of 7 databases (Ema-base, MEDLINE, AMED, Biomedical Reference Collection Expanded, CINAHL, Nursing and Allied Health Collection, and SportsDiscus) up to February 2011 to examine the evidence in the area.
One hundred and thirty-six studies were identified through electronic searching. One hundred and six were excluded based on title and/or abstract analysis and a further 14 were excluded based on full text analysis. Sixteen studies meeting the criteria were deemed suitable for inclusion. The results of the included studies indicate that the level of physical activity may be lower among individuals with RA when compared with healthy controls or normative data.
There are a number of methodological considerations at play within the studies reviewed which prohibits definitive conclusion on the physical activity levels of this population group. Given the known health benefits of physical activity, further research in this area appears indicated.
Alex Griffiths, Calum Mattocks, Andy Robert Ness, Kate Tilling, Chris Riddoch and Sam Leary
A study deriving a threshold for moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in terms of accelerometer counts in 12-year-old children was repeated with a subset of the same children at 16 years.
Fifteen girls and thirty boys took part in 6 activities (lying, sitting, slow walking, walking, hopscotch and jogging) while wearing an Actigraph 7164 accelerometer and a Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic unit. Random intercepts modeling was used to estimate cut points for MVPA (defined as 4 METs).
Using a single model, the sex-specific thresholds derived for MVPA at 16 years were some way below the 3600 counts/minute used for both sexes at age 12, particularly for girls. However graphical examination suggested that a single model might be inadequate to describe both higher- and lower-intensity activities. Models using only lower-intensity activities close to the 4 METs threshold supported retention of the 3600 counts/minute cut point for both sexes.
When restricting to lower-intensity activities only, these data do not provide sufficient evidence to change the previously established cut point of 3600 counts/minute to represent MVPA. However, further data and more sophisticated modeling techniques are required to confirm this decision.
Kimberly A. Smith, Michael Gallagher, Anne E. Hays, Fredric L. Goss and Robert Robertson
Pedometers are most accurate at measuring steps, less accurate at estimating distance, and even less accurate at estimating kilocalorie expenditure. The purpose of this investigation was to create a Physical Activity Index (PAI) using pedometer step counts and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to enhance the ability to estimate kilocalorie expenditure during walking exercise.
Thirty-two females performed 3 counterbalanced walking bouts. During each bout, oxygen consumption, RPE, and step counts were measured. The PAI was calculated as the product of RPE and step count for each of the bouts.
Concurrent validation of the PAI was established using VO2 as the criterion variable. A multiple regression analysis revealed a strong, positive relation between PAI score and VO2 (r = .91). Data were then used to develop a statistical model to estimate kcal expenditure using the PAI score as the predictor variable.
The PAI was found to be an accurate method of estimating kcal expenditure and is a simple, unobtrusive and inexpensive tool which may be used in public health settings.
Edgard Melo Keene von Koenig Soares, Guilherme E. Molina, Daniel Saint Martin, João Luís A. E. Sadat P. Leitão, Keila E. Fontana, Luiz F. Junqueira Jr., Timóteo Leandro de Araújo, Sandra Mahecha Matsudo, Victor K. Matsudo and Luiz Guilherme Grossi Porto
Background: The World Health Organization recommends 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) throughout the week. However, the weekly frequency of PA and how to combine moderate and vigorous PA to define who reaches the recommended PA are controversial. PA level might be highly different based on the recommendation and/or the criteria employed. Methods: Demographic data and PA level evaluated by International Physical Activity Questionnaire from 3 random and representative samples from 1 state, 1 city, and 1 local organization in Brazil were analyzed (n = 2961). Nine criteria from different recommendations were used to define PA level. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals of sufficient PA were calculated for each criterion and compared with the referent (World Health Organization guideline). Total agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were also calculated with 95% confidence interval. Results: When a weekly frequency of PA was required, the prevalence of sufficient PA decreased by 11% (P < .05). For all criteria, doubling the vigorous PA minutes was similar to simply adding them to moderate PA. These findings are consistent regardless of sex, age, and educational level. Conclusion: Prevalence estimates and agreement between different PA recommendations were significantly affected when a minimum frequency was required but did not change when vigorous PA minutes were doubled.
Andreas Wolff Hansen, Inger Dahl-Petersen, Jørn Wulff Helge, Søren Brage, Morten Grønbæk and Trine Flensborg-Madsen
The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys, but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population.
Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007–2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous, and sedentary intensity levels were derived from the IPAQ and compared with estimates from Acc+HR using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Repeatability of the IPAQ was also assessed.
PAEE from the 2 methods was significantly positively correlated (0.29 and 0.49; P = 0.02 and P < 0.001; for women and men, respectively). Men significantly overestimated PAEE by IPAQ (56.2 vs 45.3 kJ/kg/day, IPAQ: Acc+HR, P < .01), while the difference was nonsignificant for women (40.8 vs 44.4 kJ/kg/day). Bland-Altman plots showed that the IPAQ overestimated PAEE, moderate, and vigorous activity without systematic error. Reliability of the IPAQ was moderate to high for all domains and intensities (total PAEE intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.58).
This Danish Internet-based version of the long IPAQ had modest validity and reliability when assessing PAEE at population level.
Katherine Reta Devonshire-Gill and Kevin Ian Norton
Background: Insufficient physical activity (PA) is a risk factor for several noncommunicable chronic diseases. The World Health Organization stresses the need for national PA trend data to help inform strategies to arrest noncommunicable chronic disease incidence. The Active Australia Survey questionnaire quantifies leisure-time physical activity. Despite being used repeatedly in large population surveys, these data have never been analyzed as a single dataset. This study established temporal trends for aerobic PA sufficiency prevalences in the Australian adult (18–75+ y) population, 2002–2012, based on leisure-time physical activity. Methods: Individuals’ records from 58 surveys were merged into a master database (N = 443,211) and categorized according to sufficiency of PA (150 minutes of PA per week). Data were age/sex standardized to the 2011 Australian population. PA sufficiency trends were determined for the whole sample and sociodemographic subgroups. Results:Sufficient PA prevalences 2002–2012 increased from 55.9% (95% CI, 55.893–55.897) to 61.2% (95% CI, 61.223–61.267). No reported PA prevalences decreased from 16.1% (95% CI, 16.095–16.101) to 13.8% (95% CI, 13.745–13.811). This pattern persisted across most sociodemographic subgroups. Disparities between age groups, male/female, metropolitan/rural, and advantaged/disadvantaged categories, although present, were not diverging further. Conclusions: Levels of adult leisure-time physical activity are slowly increasing, but a substantial proportion of the population is still at increased risk of adverse health outcomes due to insufficient PA.
Elizabeth K. Grimm, Ann M. Swartz, Teresa Hart, Nora E. Miller and Scott J. Strath
Older adult physical activity (PA) levels obtained from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ) and accelerometry (ACC) were compared. Mean difference scores between accumulated or bout ACC PA and the IPAQ were computed. Spearman rank-order correlations were used to assess relations between time spent in PA measured from ACC and self-reported form of the IPAQ, and percentage agreement across measures was used to classify meeting or not meeting PA recommendations. The IPAQ significantly underestimated sitting and overestimated time spent in almost all PA intensities. Group associations across measures revealed significant relations in walking, total PA, and sitting for the whole group (r = .29–.36, p < .05). Significant relationships between bout ACC and IPAQ walking (r = .28–.39, p < .05) were found. There was 40–46% agreement between measures for meeting PA recommendations. The IPAQ appears not to be a good indicator of individual older adult PA behavior but is better suited for larger population-based samples.
Nora E. Miller, Scott J. Strath, Ann M. Swartz and Susan E. Cashin
This study examined the predictive validity of accelerometers (ACC) to estimate physical activity intensity (PAI) across age and differences in intensity predictions when expressed in relative and absolute PAI terms. Ninety adults categorized into 3 age groups (20–29, 40–49, and 60–69 yr) completed a treadmill calibration study with simultaneous ACC (7164 Actigraph) and oxygen-consumption assessment. Results revealed strong linear relations between ACC output and measured PAI (R 2 = .62–.89) across age and similar ACC cut-point ranges across age delineating absolute PAI ranges compared with previous findings. Comparing measured metabolic equivalents (METs) with estimated METs derived from previously published regression equations revealed that age did not affect predictive validity of ACC estimates of absolute PAI. Comparing ACC output expressed in relative vs. absolute terms across age revealed substantial differences in PAI ACC count ranges. Further work is warranted to increase the applicability of ACC use relative to PAI differences associated with physiological changes with age.