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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

influences (which interfaces the parasympathetic nervous system to decrease heart rate) and decreased sympathetic influences (which increases the heart rate) ( Wisen et al., 2015 ). Thus, these physiological adaptations in OB populations may explain the variations in heart rate responses to submaximal

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Francesco Campa, Hannes Gatterer, Henry Lukaski and Stefania Toselli

vector length is inversely related to total body water, 5 this should indicate fluid gain. Obviously, this immediate shift is caused by the mentioned physiological adaptations during exercise, as the slightly reduced body weight indicates body fluid loss due to sweating. Accordingly, after the shower

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Diana Keyhani, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Arezou Dabiri and Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira

-C and in improving HDL-C, compared with MIACT. A clarification of the training adaptations will eventually provide indications for future and novel training methodologies. These results will help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying the physiological adaptation of GAL-3, as a biomarker

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Enzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giovanna Aquino, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno and Alessandra di Cagno

better self-efficacy in memory perception in older adults may be influenced by the environmental enrichment that exercise guarantees: The environmental enrichment determines different mechanisms of biological or physiological adaptations that may positively affect brain functioning ( Kelly et al., 2014

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Inès Boukabous, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Taha Amamou, Pierre Boulay, Martin Brochu, Daniel Tessier, Isabelle Dionne and Eléonor Riesco

– 625 . doi:10.1038/oby.2005.66 10.1038/oby.2005.66 Gibala , M.J. , Little , J.P. , Macdonald , M.J. , & Hawley , J.A. ( 2012 ). Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease . The Journal of Physiology, 590 ( 5 ), 1077 – 1084 . doi:10

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

not appear to provide sufficient hypoxic stimulus for key physiological adaptation, although increases in Hb mass have been reported from training as low as 1,600 m ( Sharma et al., 2019 ) and 1,800 m ( Garvican-Lewis et al., 2015 ). Altitudes much higher than 2,500 m have greater potential to cause

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Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont

enhance physiological adaptations. In this regard, the affective-reflective theory of physical inactivity and exercise ( Brand & Ekkekakis, 2018 ) and the three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behavior ( Venhorst, Micklewright, & Noakes, 2018 ) are two recently

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Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Sam O. Shepherd, Oliver J. Wilson, Anton J.M. Wagenmakers and Christopher S. Shaw

exercise—lack of time ( Jung et al., 2014 ; Shepherd et al., 2015 ). It would be interesting to investigate whether more traditional MICT programs of similar session length could achieve maintenance to exercise compared with the current HIIT program. Although physiological adaptation may not reach the

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Antoine Langeard, Lucile Bigot, Gilles Loggia, Nathalie Chastan, Gaëlle Quarck and Antoine Gauthier

. However, Amiridis et al 15 used NMES superimposed onto maximal voluntary contractions. It is, therefore, difficult to determine if their findings come from voluntary or from NMES-induced muscle contractions, especially because NMES induces different physiologic adaptations compared with NMES or voluntary

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

studies of elite athletes in high-intensity sports ( Boorsma et al., 2014 ; Peacock et al., 2012 ; Sandbakk et al., 2015 ). Advanced physiological adaptations through extensive training, such as higher muscular capillarization and optimized oxygen transport, may render nitrate supplementation less