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Gretchen D. Oliver

Edited by Patrick McKeon

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Charles C. Alexander

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Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited and Donald Bae

youth pitchers in particular, ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears, flexor tendinitis, rotator cuff dysfunction, and medial epicondylitis 9 , 10 may occur. Factors contributing to arm injuries include overuse, 1 , 11 fatigued pitching, 1 improper mechanics, 1 , 9 , 12 , 13 and

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Tomoyuki Matsuo, Rafael F. Escamilla, Glenn S. Fleisig, Steven W. Barrentine and James R. Andrews

This study investigated differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between two velocity groups of baseball pitchers. Data were collected from 127 healthy college and professional baseball pitchers. Those who threw faster than 1 SD above the sample mean (>38.0 m/s) were assigned to the high velocity group (n = 29), and those who threw slower than 1 SD below the sample mean (<34.2 m/s) were assigned to the low velocity group (n = 23). Twelve kinematic parameters and 9 temporal parameters were measured and analyzed. The pattern of lead knee movement was also investigated. Maximum shoulder external rotation, forward trunk tilt at the instant of ball release, and lead knee extension angular velocity at the instant of ball release were significantly greater in the high velocity group. Maximum lead knee flexion angular velocity was significantly greater in the low velocity group. Seventy percent of the high velocity group showed knee extension during the approach to ball release, whereas the low velocity group showed a variety of knee movement patterns involving less knee extension and more knee flexion. The greater shoulder external rotation in the high velocity group produced an increased range of motion during the acceleration phase.

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Kim M. Clabbers, John D. Kelly, Dov Bader, Matthew Eager, Carl Imhauser, Sorin Siegler and Ray A. Moyer

Context:

Throwing injuries.

Objective:

To study the effects of posterior capsule tightness on humeral head position in late cocking simulation.

Design:

Eight fresh frozen shoulders were placed in position of “late cocking,” 90 degrees abduction, and 10 degrees adduction and maximal external rotation. 3D measurements of humeral head relationship to the glenoid were taken with an infrared motion sensor, both before and after suture plication of the posterior capsule. Plications of 20% posterior/inferior capsule and 20% entire posterior capsule were performed, followed by plications of 40% of the posterior/inferior capsule and 40% entire posterior capsule.

Setting:

Cadaver Lab.

Intervention:

Posterior capsular placation.

Main Outcome Measures:

Humeral head position.

Results:

40%, but not 20%, posterior/inferior and posterior plications demonstrated a trend to increased posterior-superior humeral head translation relative to controls.

Conclusion:

Surgically created posterior capsular tightness of the glenohumeral joint demonstrated a nonsignificant trend to increased posterior/superior humeral head translation in the late cocking position of throwing.

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John Sugden and Alan Bairner

The political crisis in Northern Ireland has been met with a wide range of responses from the British state. Apart from a manifest increase in its coercive powers, in an attempt to maintain hegemonic supremacy there have been state sponsored initiatives directed toward penetrating and influencing various aspects of the Province’s popular culture. Because of the close relationship between sport, leisure, and the separate cultural traditions that underpin the political conflict, this area of popular culture has proven to be highly contested terrain. While traditional Marxist approaches to the study of superstructural formations have been greatly enhanced by the application of categories drawn from Gramsci’s political analysis, the Northern Ireland case reveals that Gramsci’s distinction between political and civil society is only useful so long as its application is flexible enough to accommodate the widest possible range of social divisions.

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Wilbert M. Leonard II

This study refined and extended Christiano’s recent inquiry on race and salaries in major league baseball. Instead of merely dichotomizing the independent variable into black and white, the data were trichotomized into white, black, and Hispanic categories; pitchers, because they were not studied, provided the focal point. A model of salary for pitchers was both specified and tested. Unstandardized regression coefficients (after disaggregating the units of analysis by race/ethnicity) revealed several instances of salary inequities but small ns precluded systematic testing. Hence, the verdict is still out as to whether or not the salaries of baseball pitchers varying in race/ethnicity are consistently different while holding other theoretically relevant variables constant.

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Khaya Morris-Binelli, Sean Müller and Peter Fadde

baseball batters (of single-A minor league level) and whether their scores were related to game batting statistics. They found a significant positive correlation between overall pitch type anticipation at the front-foot landing temporal occlusion (pre-ball release information) and base-on-balls (how often

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Jason Simmons, Nels Popp and Greg Greenhalgh

The outdoor athletic fields of Sunshine State University are in poor condition. Overuse, insufficient drainage, and a lack of human and financial resources have contributed to the fields’ deterioration. Sunshine State University’s director of athletics, Emily Rodriguez, has decided to replace the existing fields, but that decision is just the tip of the iceberg. Rodriguez now must decide on a natural or synthetic surface for the new fields. This decision is complex because cost, maintenance, durability, player safety, and player preference must all be considered. Both surfaces have their advantages and disadvantages. In the end, Rodriguez must decide which surface is right for Sunshine State University.