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Marsha Dowda, Ruth P. Saunders, Natalie Colabianchi, Rod K. Dishman, Kerry L. McIver and Russell R. Pate

.2% living in poverty). The second district was in a county in the central part of the state, with a population of 107,490 persons in 2010 (48% white, 48% black and 19.1% living in poverty). 21 Recruitment assemblies were held in all schools, during which all fifth graders were invited to participate. They

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Nicole E. Nicksic, Meliha Salahuddin, Nancy F. Butte and Deanna M. Hoelscher

covariates were utilized in analyses based on prior research 6 , 10 , 11 , 31 : parent-reported child race/ethnicity, parent level of education, poverty-income ratio (PIR), marital status, child’s weight status, and parent PA. Child race/ethnicity was operationalized as non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

highest child poverty rate (0.225). Qatar had the highest gross national income per capita, the lowest relative public health expenditure, and the highest Gender Inequality Index. Slovenia had the lowest Gini index (least income inequality) and the lowest percentage of urban population (49.8%). The life

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

interactions, with time for each predictor variable. After a series of exploratory models, the final model included 21 identified variables, along with time, sex, race/ethnicity, parent education, and poverty index. A significant decline in physical activity was observed from fifth to seventh grades. Factors

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Simone A. Tomaz, Anthony D. Okely, Alastair van Heerden, Khanya Vilakazi, Marie-Louise Samuels and Catherine E. Draper

the South African setting, this step is especially important, as despite being classified as an upper-middle-income country, South Africa is one of the most unequal societies in the world. According to the World Bank, 18.9% of South Africa’s population is living in poverty (by the definition of

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Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee

OR exercise) AND (child* OR preschool* OR obesity OR daycare OR toddler OR youth OR adolescent) AND (low income OR poverty OR disadvantaged OR at-risk OR African American OR Black OR Latino OR Hispanic). Additional articles were obtained by inspection of reference lists from review articles and

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Jonathan M. Miller, Mark A. Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N. Laska, Toben F. Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

Asian girls. As the Asian participants in Project EAT-2010 were primarily of Hmong ethnicity, a recent immigrant group that began arriving in America in the 1970s, we hypothesized that acculturation or neighborhood poverty may confound these associations. However, post hoc adjustment for participants

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Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans and Paul Kowal

: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 59 ( 3 ), 128 – 137 . doi:10.1093/geronb/59.3.S128 10.1093/geronb/59.3.S128 Amato , P.R. , & Zuo , J. ( 1992 ). Rural poverty, urban poverty, and psychological well-being . The Sociological Quarterly, 33 ( 2 ), 229 – 240 . doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1992.tb

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MinKyoung Song, Robert F. Corwyn, Robert H. Bradley and Julie C. Lumeng

to an income-to-needs ratio based on federal poverty levels for each family size (ratio of <2.0 is considered low income). 37 Information on whether the mother had a partner/spouse was obtained by interview at ages 9, 11, 12, and 15. Data collection sites were grouped by region of residence at age

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Erica Pasquini and Melissa Thompson

with which to accomplish the same goals. References Carter , A.D. , & Bloom , G.A. ( 2009 ). Coaching knowledge and success: Going beyond athletic experiences . Journal of Sport Behavior, 32 , 419 – 437 . Coombs , P.H. , & Ahmed , M. ( 1974 ). Attacking rural poverty: How nonformal