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Frank E. DiLiberto and Deborah A. Nawoczenski

It is important to continue to expand the biomechanical profile of midfoot function beyond kinematics and include kinetic measurements, such as power. As the external measurements of power are representative of internal energy generating mechanisms, 1 incorporating kinetics into the biomechanical

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Harsh H. Buddhadev, Daniel L. Crisafulli, David N. Suprak and Jun G. San Juan

stationary cycling performed over 10 to 12 weeks led to a reduction in knee pain and stiffness, and improvement in walking speed and distance in individuals with knee OA. 8 , 9 Positive benefits of rehabilitation caused by cycling could be attributed to improvements in leg muscular power output and dynamic

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Emma K. Zadow, Cecilia M. Kitic, Sam S.X. Wu, Stuart T. Smith and James W. Fell


To assess the validity of power output settings of the Wahoo KICKR Power Trainer (KICKR) using a dynamic calibration rig (CALRIG) over a range of power outputs and cadences.


Using the KICKR to set power outputs, powers of 100–999 W were assessed at cadences (controlled by the CALRIG) of 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 rpm.


The KICKR displayed accurate measurements of power of 250–700 W at cadences of 80–120 rpm with a bias of –1.1% (95% limits of agreement [LoA] –3.6% to 1.4%). A larger mean bias in power was observed across the full range of power tested, 100–999 W (4.2%, 95% LoA –20.1% to 28.6%), due to larger biases of 100–200 and 750–999 W (4.5%, 95% LoA –2.3% to 11.3%, and 13.0%, 95% LoA –24.4% to 50.3%), respectively.


Compared with a CALRIG, the KICKR has acceptable accuracy reporting a small mean bias and narrow LoA in the measurement of power output of 250–700 W at cadences of 80–120 rpm. Caution should be applied by coaches and sports scientists when using the KICKR at power outputs of <200 W and >750 W due to the greater variability in recorded power.

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Steffi L. Colyer, Keith A. Stokes, James L.J. Bilzon, Danny Holdcroft and Aki I.T. Salo

It is well established that success in sprint-based activities is greatly influenced by an athlete’s ability to produce high-power output. 1 , 2 This also applies to the winter Olympic sport of skeleton, as lower-limb power is a key determinant of a fast push-start, 3 , 4 which is considered to

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Michael J.A. Speranza, Tim J. Gabbett, David A. Greene, Rich D. Johnston and Andrew D. Townshend

-the-ball tackling ability and match-play performance. However, to date, no study has investigated the relationship between an over-the-ball tackle ability drill and rugby league match-play tackle performance. Lower- and upper-body strength, as well as upper-body power, has been shown to be significantly related to

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Justin J. Merrigan, James J. Tufano, Jonathan M. Oliver, Jason B. White, Jennifer B. Fields and Margaret T. Jones

Increasing power output is important when training athletes. Power is the product of force and velocity; therefore, changes in velocity are reciprocal for power. 1 During traditional resistance training, repetitions are performed continuously, without rest, until the set is complete. Within

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, Eric J. Drinkwater, Riki S. Lindsay, Eric R. Helms, Eric T. Harbour and Adam G. Storey

Optimizing muscle power and rapid force production is important for peak performance in several sports. 1 , 2 Weightlifting movements such as the power clean (PC) closely mirror many unloaded athletic movements as they are ballistic and biomechanically similar to jumping, sprinting, and change of

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Rich D. Johnston

course of a game is likely to be vital for success. Although the execution of effective skills is associated with success, 4 and strength and power related to good tackle technique, 7 the impact technical errors have on match outcome and the role physical characteristics play in error rates are

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Levi Heimans, Wouter R. Dijkshoorn, Marco J.M. Hoozemans and Jos J. de Koning

A cyclist’s steady-state velocity during time trial events in track cycling depends on the balance between power production and power losses. In order to improve performance, athletes train to increase power production and try to minimize power loss. This loss of power depends on rolling resistance

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Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Chris R. Abbiss, Eric C. Haakonssen and Paolo Menaspà

from male cyclists to their female counterparts. For instance, lower whole-body muscle mass 16 has been observed in female compared with male athletes, which can influence peak power output, 17 whereas a slower rate of force production during a maximal sprint, irrespective of muscle mass, has been