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Judith E. Rink, Karen E. French, Peter H. Werner, Susan Lynn and Amy Mays

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on student learning of different ways of structuring student practice of complex motor skills. Previous research indicated that students who practiced the volleyball set and serve with a four-step progression learned more than students who practiced only the final test for the same number of practice trials; the effect of motivation and practice focused on specific learning cues was unclear. The present study investigated the specific role of progression, refinement, and motivation in learning the volleyball set and serve. Ninth-grade students were randomly assigned to one of five groups: (a) control, (b) final-test practice with refinement tasks after every five trials, (c) final-test practice with motivational feedback only, (d) four-step progression, and (e) four-step progression with refinement after every five trials. All experimental groups were pretested and posttested using the AAHPERD volleyball tests for the set and serve and practiced each skill 10 times a day for 6 days. The results supported the positive effect of providing students with a progression and the need for refinement tasks for parts of the progression.

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Brian D. Street and William Gage

TKR, about one-third went on to have a second joint replacement and that 92% of those replaced joints were the contralateral knee. It has been argued that after unilateral TKR, asymmetrical gait patterns play a contributory factor in the progression of OA, 17 as both magnitude and directional

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Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox and Richard C. Thelwell

salient influences on their experiences, retention, development, and progression: inclusive leadership, supportive and horizontal relationships, and visible pathways for career development were most influential. Women who felt most supported in their career progression worked in central or regional FA

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Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich and Jasmine Thomson

were not periodized as expected. A general concurrent progression in volume and intensity was reported, inconsistent with the expected pattern (staggered increases in volume and intensity). However, the shorter than expected time taken to complete the survey (17 min, vs. 30–40 min estimated) may be due

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Gabrielle Stubblefield, Jeffrey Tilly and Kathy Liu

possible, clinicians should access preinjury baseline measurements for comparison after injury to aid in rehabilitation progression throughout the recovery process after an injury. While there is pressure to return athletes to activity as quickly as possible, interfering with the healing process can affect

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Arturo Casado and Andrew Renfree

probability of progression from qualification rounds in the middle-distance running events at a major athletic championship, 5 there is no published research which also incorporates analysis of split times. Incorporation of this variable may assist in furthering understanding of the decision-making process

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Farnoosh Mafi, Soheil Biglari, Alireza Ghardashi Afousi and Abbas Ali Gaeini

individuals to the degree that they fall down while walking and may even increase the risk of death ( Kalinkovich & Livshits, 2015 ). The intensity and speed of sarcopenia progression are influenced by several factors, including genetics, resistance training, and nutrition ( Kalinkovich & Livshits, 2015

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Samantha N. Boudreau, Maureen K. Dwyer, Carl G. Mattacola, Christian Lattermann, Tim L. Uhl and Jennifer Medina McKeon


Functional exercises are often used in strengthening programs after lower extremity injury. Activation levels of the stabilizing hip muscles have not been documented.


To document the progression of hip-muscle activation levels during 3 lower extremity functional exercises.






44 healthy individuals, 22 women and 22 men.


Subjects, in 1 testing session, completed 3 trials each of the lunge (LUN), single-leg squat (SLSQ), and step-up-and-over (SUO) exercise.

Main Outcome Measures:

Root-mean-square muscle amplitude (% reference voluntary muscle contraction) was measured for 5 muscles during the 3 exercises: rectus femoris (RF), dominant and nondominant gluteus medius (GMed_D and GMed_ND), adductor longus (ADD), and gluteus maximus (GMX).


The RF, GMAX, and GMed_D were activated in a progression from least to greatest during the SUO, LUN, and SLSQ. The progression for the GMed_ND activation was from least to greatest during the SLSQ, SUO, and then LUN. Activation levels of the ADD showed no progression.


Progressive activation levels were documented for muscles acting on the hip joint during 3 functional lower extremity exercises. The authors recommend using this exercise progression when targeting the hip muscles during lower extremity strengthening.

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Laura A. Gale, Ben A. Ives, Paul A. Potrac and Lee J. Nelson

forms of work, has been progressively subject to neoliberal, market-oriented ideologies and practices ( Ives et al., 2016 ). These not only include increasing intensification, individualization, and performativity, but also growing concerns regarding continued employment and career progression

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Corliss Bean, Tineke Dineen and Mary Jung

/year and is projected to reach $39 billion by 2028 ( Diabetes Canada, 2018 ). Adhering to a healthy diet and regular exercise can halt the progression of prediabetes to T2D, thus reducing health care costs and improving quality of life for individuals with prediabetes ( Bilandzic & Rosella, 2017