This case study examined interpersonal communication in sport in the form of verbal aggression among elite athletes in the Australian Football League (AFL). It focused on the experience and motivation of athletes who use athlete-to-athlete verbal aggression and the responses of athletes who have been the targets of verbal aggression during games. In addition, the reasons athletes have for not engaging in verbal aggression were also examined. Purposive sampling procedures produced a select sample of elite male athletes known for their aggressive approach to playing Australian football. Qualitative methods and deductive analysis procedures, informed by J.H. Kerr’s categories of sport aggression, were used to interpret the interview data. Meaningful insights into verbal aggression in the AFL were obtained. Based on the underlying motivation, interview transcript descriptions of incidents were identified as examples of power, thrill, and anger verbal aggression.
John H. Kerr and Pippa Grange
Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews and Scott Fleming
This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.
Rachel Arnold and David Fletcher
The purpose of this study was to synthesize the research that has identified the organizational stressors encountered by sport performers and develop a taxonomic classification of these environmental demands. This study used a meta-interpretation, which is an interpretive form of synthesis that is suited to topic areas employing primarily qualitative methods. Thirty-four studies (with a combined sample of 1809 participants) were analyzed using concurrent thematic and context analysis. The organizational stressors that emerged from the analysis numbered 1287, of which 640 were distinct stressors. The demands were abstracted into 31 subcategories, which were subsequently organized to form four categories: leadership and personnel, cultural and team, logistical and environmental, and performance and personal issues. This meta-interpretation with taxonomy provides the most accurate, comprehensive, and parsimonious classification of organizational stressors to date. The findings are valid, generalizable, and applicable to a large number of sport performers of various ages, genders, nationalities, sports, and standards.
Graham Jones, Sheldon Hanton and Declan Connaughton
The authors conducted an investigation of mental toughness in a sample population of athletes who have achieved ultimate sporting success. Eight Olympic or world champions, 3 coaches, and 4 sport psychologists agreed to participate. Qualitative methods addressed 3 fundamental issues: the definition of mental toughness, the identification of its essential attributes, and the development of a framework of mental toughness. Results verified the authors’ earlier definition of mental toughness and identified 30 attributes that were essential to being mentally tough. These attributes clustered under 4 separate dimensions (attitude/mindset, training, competition, postcompetition) within an overall framework of mental toughness. Practical implications and future avenues of research involving the development of mental toughness and measurement issues are discussed.
Dawn K. Wilson, Suzanne Domel Baxter, Caroline Guinn, Russell R. Pate and Kerry McIver
Qualitative methods were used to better understand how to obtain interviewer-administered recalls of physical activity from children.
Subjects were 24 third- and fifth-grade children from 1 school in Columbia, South Carolina. Cognitive interviews targeted different retention intervals (about the same or previous school day). Round 1’s protocols used an open format and had 4 phases (obtain free recall, review free recall, obtain details, review details). Round 2’s protocols used a chronological format and had 3 phases (obtain free recall, obtain details, review details). Trained coders identified discrepancies across interview phases in children’s recalls of physical activity at physical education (PE) and recess. Based on the school’s schedule, children’s reports of PE and recess were classified as omissions (scheduled but unreported) or intrusions (unscheduled but reported).
Across interview phases, there were numerous discrepancies for Round 1 (regardless of grade, sex, or retention interval) but few discrepancies for Round 2. For Rounds 1 and 2, respectively, 0% and 0% of children omitted PE, while 33% and 0% intruded PE; 44% and 56% of children omitted recess, while 33% and 0% intruded recess.
Results provide important information for facilitating interviewer-administered recalls of physical activity with elementary-age children.
Peter M. Hopsicker and Douglas Hochstetler
In this paper, we ethically examine the value of dichotomies to the endurance community or any sports community bifurcated by attitudes of superiority in one qualitative method of experiencing an activity over another—as Pearl Izumi's 2007 advertising campaign “We are not joggers” has done by dividing the bipedal ambulatory endurance community into “runners” and “joggers.” Using the writings of American pragmatists William James and John Dewey, we will describe the endurance sports community in terms of “unsympathetic characters” and “sympathetic characters.” We will then layer conceptions of the “static” self and the “dynamic” self on top of this dichotomy. The results of this examination will not support Pearl Izumi's dichotomy in “static” ways. However, if these perspectives are viewed as exemplifying a temporal measure of the “dynamic” self, as part of the endurance athletes' personal narratives, then actions and attitudes based on these dichotomies can be seen as part of meaningful personal and community growth as well as a potential source of virtue.
Larissa Galatti, Otavio Baggiotto Bettega, Vinícius Zeilmann Brasil, Antonio Evanhoé Pereira de Souza Sobrinho, Rachael Bertram, Alexandre Vinicius Bobato Tozetto, Heitor Andrade Rodrigues, Carine Collet, Juarez Nascimento and Michel Milistetd
Sport coaches in Brazil have been recognized as professionals since the implementation of law 9696 in 1998. However, little is known about the impact of this law on the production of coaching science in this country. In an attempt to situate the sports coaching research produced in Brazil since then, the aim of the current study was to show an overview of Brazilian publications from 2000 to 2015. Eight journals were selected and a review was performed in 425 issues of the journals from 2000 to 2015. As a result, 82 published articles were analyzed. On average, five articles were published each year, with 81.7% of the articles published from 2009 to 2015. The findings illustrate that 37.7% of the articles were focused on coaches’ thinking and 29.5% on coaches’ behaviors, 48.7% used qualitative methods, while 40.3% used quantitative methods and 20.9% used mixed methods. Only two articles attempted to explore the impact of the 1998 legislation on the development of sport coaches in Brazil. In general, research on sport coaching in Brazil seems to be emerging on an international level, as there has been an increase in publications over the past seven years, especially in the lead-up to the Rio2016 Summer Olympic Games.
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived psychological benefits and explore the mechanisms underlying the link between exercise and psychological well-being for a group of older adults (65-72 years; 6 women; 4 men) who participated in a 12-week program of moderate-to-high intensity resistance training. They were interviewed in-depth at 1 week preintervention, 1 month after commencement, and 1 week after completion. The participants believed that resistance training enhanced their well-being, and they gave various physical, mental, and social reasons to explain this link. In particular, self-efficacy and social interaction were found to be key mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study exposed meaningful perceived improvements in psychological well-being that have not been uncovered in quantitative studies of healthy older people undertaking resistance training. The findings highlight the importance of using qualitative methods to enrich understandings of the positive effect of exercise on psychological well-being. The findings also have implications for designing effective resistance training interventions for older people.
Moise Muzigaba, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander and Fiona Wong
Facility-based and context-specific interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among pregnant women from economically underprivileged communities remain sparse and undocumented in South Africa. This study aimed to generate information about pregnant women’s views and experiences of PA during pregnancy, which will later be used to inform the development of a PA-based intervention targeting this group.
Qualitative methods were used and framed on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Five focus group discussions were conducted at a Community Health Centre in Cape Town, each comprising a stratified random sample of between 8 and 6 pregnant women living in eight low socioeconomic status communities close to the facility. The participants included primi- and multigravida black and mixed racial ancestry women at different stages of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using a Framework approach.
PA was considered important for self and the baby for most participants. However, they reported a number of barriers for translating intentions into action including the lack of supportive environment, fear of hurting oneself and the growing baby, lack of time due to work and family responsibilities, and not knowing which and how much PA is safe to do. Some of the incentives to engage in PA included establishing community-based group exercise clubs, initiating antenatal PA education and PA sessions during antenatal visits.
Based on our findings the need for an intervention to promote PA in pregnancy is evident. Such an intervention should, however, aim at addressing barriers reported in this study, particularly those related to the behavioral context.
should try to formulate new topics and decide on one that could be developed into my own line of research for the future. She also suggested strongly that I needed to “retool” my research skills by using qualitative methods in the dissertation study so that I would improve on using these methods