postintervention, participants were asked to complete the Stroop and determination tests. The sample size was estimated using a meta-analysis that reported a small to moderate positive effect of PA on EFs based on randomized controlled trials (i.e., Hedges’ g = .24 in de Greeff et al. ( 2018 ); effect size [ES
Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang
Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun
exercises alone. Methods Study Design The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial of 2 exercise protocols for NNP. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Hacettepe University, and all patients signed the informed consent form. The trial protocol was conducted in accordance with the
Alex T. Strauss, Austin J. Parr, Daniel J. Desmond, Ashmel T. Vargas and Russell T. Baker
study was to investigate the acute effect of a single application of TMR ® on FMS ™ composite scores in participants with low baseline composite scores (ie, ≤13) on the FMS ™ . Methods A two-level blinded randomized control trial methodology was utilized to examine the effect of TMR ® on participants
Kathleen A. Martin and Adrienne R. Sinden
This study examined exercise-adherence rates and their predictors across 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving older adults (age ≥ 55 years). On average, participants completed 78% of their prescribed exercise bouts. Adherence tended to be greater in strength- and flexibility-exercise training programs (M = 87%) than in aerobic-exercise training programs (M = 75%). The best adherers were individuals who were fitter at baseline, had a history of a physically active lifestyle, were nonsmokers, and had higher exercise self-efficacy. Different variables predicted adherence (a) at different time points in a RCT. (b) to different types of exercise, and (c) to different aspects of the exercise prescription (i.e., frequency, intensity, and duration). The findings suggest that older adults might be more adherent to exercise prescriptions than younger adults are. There is also a need for more theory-based research to examine predictors of adherence to various aspects of the exercise prescription.
Ulrika Olsson Möller, Jimmie Kristensson, Patrik Midlöv, Charlotte Ekdahl and Ulf Jakobsson
To investigate the effects of a home-based one-year case management intervention in older people with functional dependency and repeated contact with the health care services on self-reported falls and self-reported injurious falls.
The study was a randomized controlled trial with repeated follow-ups. The sample (n = 153) was consecutively and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 80, mean age = 81.4 [SD 5.9]) or control group (n = 73, mean age = 81.6 [SD 6.8]). The intervention group received a case management intervention which comprised monthly home visits during 12 months by nurses and physiotherapists employing a multifactorial preventive approach.
In the intervention group, 96 falls occurred during the intervention period compared with 85 falls in the control group (p = .900). There were 40 and 38 injurious falls (p = .669) in the intervention and control groups, respectively.
This home-based case management intervention was not able to prevent falls or injurious falls.
Nicholas Gilson, Jim McKenna and Carlton Cooke
This study explored the experiences of university employees recruited to a 10-week randomized controlled trial (n = 64). The trial compared “walking routes” with “walking-while-working” on daily step totals, showing that, compared with controls, interventions resulted in around 1000 extra steps per day.
A subsample of 15 academic and administrative employees from intervention groups completed interviews at the end of intervention. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to inductive coding within the major themes of benefits/positives and problems/barriers.
Both interventions benefited employee health and work productivity but were difficult to implement in the workplace. Involvement in walking routes was challenged by the difficulties of managing time pressures, and individuals assigned to walking-while-working had to deal with local management subcultures favoring physical presence and inactivity.
Findings highlight the need for further research, advocate the value of walking at work, and provide insights into the challenges that face staff in workplace interventions.
Inne Aerts, Elke Cumps, Evert Verhagen, Bram Wuyts, Sam Van De Gucht and Romain Meeusen
In jump-landing sports, the injury mechanism that most frequently results in an injury is the jump-landing movement. Influencing the movement patterns and biomechanical predisposing factors are supposed to decrease injury occurrence.
To evaluate the influence of a 3-mo coach-supervised jump-landing prevention program on jump-landing technique using the jump-landing scoring (JLS) system.
Randomized controlled trial.
116 athletes age 15–41 y, with 63 athletes in the control group and 53 athletes in the intervention group. Intervention: The intervention program in this randomized control trial was administered at the start of the basketball season 2010–11. The jump-landing training program, supervised by the athletic trainers, was performed for a period of 3 mo.
Main Outcome Measures:
The jump-landing technique was determined by registering the jump-landing technique of all athletes with the JLS system, pre- and postintervention.
After the prevention program, the athletes of the male and female intervention groups landed with a significantly less erect position than those in the control groups (P < .05). This was presented by a significant improvement in maximal hip flexion, maximal knee flexion, hip active range of motion, and knee active range of motion. Another important finding was that postintervention, knee valgus during landing diminished significantly (P < .05) in the female intervention group compared with their control group. Furthermore, the male intervention group significantly improved (P < .05) the scores of the JLS system from pre- to postintervention.
Malalignments such as valgus position and insufficient knee flexion and hip flexion, previously identified as possible risk factors for lower-extremity injuries, improved significantly after the completion of the prevention program. The JLS system can help in identifying these malalignments.
Level of Evidence:
Therapy, prevention, level 1b.
Scott J. Strath, Ann M. Swartz, Sarah J. Parker, Nora E. Miller, Elizabeth K. Grimm and Susan E. Cashin
Increasing physical activity (PA) levels in older adults represents an important public health challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of combining individualized motivational messaging with pedometer walking step targets to increase PA in previously inactive and insufficiently active older adults.
In this 12-week intervention study older adults were randomized to 1 of 4 study arms: Group 1—control; Group 2—pedometer 10,000 step goal; Group 3—pedometer step goal plus individualized motivational feedback; or Group 4—everything in Group 3 augmented with biweekly telephone feedback.
81 participants were randomized into the study, 61 participants completed the study with an average age of 63.8 ± 6.0 years. Group 1 did not differ in accumulated steps/day following the 12-week intervention compared with participants in Group 2. Participants in Groups 3 and 4 took on average 2159 (P < .001) and 2488 (P < .001) more steps/day, respectively, than those in Group 1 after the 12-week intervention.
In this 12-week pilot randomized control trial, a pedometer feedback intervention partnered with individually matched motivational messaging was an effective intervention strategy to significantly increase PA behavior in previously inactive and insufficiently active older adults.
Valter C. Barbosa Filho, Kelly Samara da Silva, Jorge Mota, Carmem Beck and Adair da Silva Lopes
Promoting physical activity (PA) in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health topic as well as a challenge for practice. This study aimed to assess the effect of a school-based intervention on different PA-related variables among students.
This cluster-randomized-controlled trial included 548 students in the intervention group and 537 in the control group (11–18 years-old) from 6 schools in neighborhoods with low Human Development Index (0.170–0.491) in Fortaleza, Brazil. The intervention included strategies focused on training teachers, opportunities for PA in the school environment and health education. Variables measured at baseline and again at the 4-months follow-up included the weekly time in different types of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), preference for PA during leisure-time, PA behavioral change stage and active commuting to school. Generalized linear models and binary logistic regressions were used.
An intervention effect was found by increasing the weekly time in MVPA (effect size = 0.17), popular games (effect size = 0.35), and the amount of PA per week (effect size = 0.27) among students (all P < .05).
The intervention was effective in promoting improvements in some PA outcomes, but the changes were not sufficient to increase the proportion of those meeting PA recommendations.
Koya Mine, Takashi Nakayama, Steve Milanese and Karen Grimmer
Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) and glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD) can contribute to shoulder pain suffered by athletes engaged in overhead sporting activities. Stretching is a common intervention to resolve PST and GIRD, but it has weak evidence of effectiveness to date.
This systematic review aimed to collect and synthesize effectiveness data from English- and Japanese-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating stretching interventions for PST and GIRD.
7 English databases and 3 Japanese databases were searched from inception until December 5, 2015. Only English- and Japanese-language RCTs were considered. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Data were synthesized qualitatively.
Eight English-language and 2 Japanese-language papers of low to high quality were included. There was moderate evidence for positive immediate and short-term effects of cross-body stretch on PST and GIRD in asymptomatic young subjects. Moderate evidence was found to suggest that active sleeper stretch might not be more effective than no intervention to improve PST and GIRD in the short term.
Cross-body stretch can be effective to improve PST and GIRD in asymptomatic young subjects immediately or in the short term. Further study with methodological rigor is necessary to investigate the long-term effectiveness of stretching interventions on PST and GIRD in symptomatic patients.