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Sabrine N. Costa, Edgar R. Vieira and Paulo C. B. Bento

falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: A multicenter randomized controlled trial . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87 ( 7 ), 885 – 896 . PubMed ID: 16813773 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.04.005 10.1016/j.apmr.2006.04.005 Ferrucci , L. , Guralnik , J.M. , Studenski

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Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett

circulation ( Gleeson, McFarlin, & Flynn, 2006 ). While the specific pathways linking exercise to inflammatory activity are unclear, population-based studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have consistently demonstrated significant associations between physical activity or fitness and lower levels of

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

-group randomized controlled trial in which 81 institutionalized older Spanish adults with sarcopenia were randomized in a single sequence (simple randomization) to one of three balanced groups: one control group (CG) and two resistance training groups (peripheral muscle training group [PMTG] and respiratory muscle

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Jodie Andruschko, Anthony D. Okely and Phil Pearson

( Schulz, Altman, & Moher, 2010 ). Participants A 6-month, 2-arm parallel group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in a co-educational secondary school setting in Sydney, Australia. All girls ( n  = 292) from Grades 7–9 (first three years of secondary school, typically ages 12 to 15

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

 al., 2015 ; Hayashi et al., 2005 ). However, the effects of Tai Chi on cerebral hemodynamics in older community people have not been studied. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of Tai Chi on cerebral hemodynamics and the secondary outcomes of physical

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

with mild cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that participants who performed the VKP exercise would have improved postural control, muscle strength, and cognitive function. Methods Participants This randomized controlled trial was registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform

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Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers and Peter Iserbyt

interval was coded. All observations had an average duration of 20 minutes, and and each target child was observed the full duration of parkour recess. Procedure Intervention A cluster randomized controlled trial was used to examine the differences between the 2 conditions. A total of 14 second

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

criteria were a history of knee injury or surgery, and other degenerative conditions such as severe knee osteoarthritis. The procedures were explained to the participants prior to obtaining informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Figure 1 —Flow diagram of randomized control trial

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Boris Cheval, Philippe Sarrazin, Luc Pelletier and Malte Friese

Background:

Promoting regular physical activity (PA) and lessening sedentary behaviors (SB) constitute a public health priority. Recent evidence suggests that PA and SB are not only related to reflective processes (eg, behavioral intentions), but also to impulsive approach-avoidance tendencies (IAAT). This study aims to test the effect of a computerized IAAT intervention on an exercise task.

Methods:

Participants (N = 115) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions, in which they were either trained to approach PA and avoid SB (ApPA-AvSB condition), to approach SB and avoid PA (ApSB-AvPA condition), or to approach and avoid PA and SB equally often (active control condition). The main outcome variable was the time spent carrying out a moderate intensity exercise task.

Results:

IAAT toward PA decreased in the ApSB-AvPA condition, tended to increase in the ApPA-AvSB condition, and remained stable in the control condition. Most importantly, the ApPA-AvSB manipulation led to more time spent exercising than the ApSB-AvPA condition. Sensitivity analyses excluding individuals who were highly physically active further revealed that participants in the ApPA-AvSB condition spent more time exercising than participants in the control condition.

Conclusions:

These findings provide preliminary evidence that a single intervention session can successfully change impulsive approach tendencies toward PA and can increase the time devoted to an exercise task, especially among individuals who need to be more physically active. Potential implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

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David R. Lubans, Chris M. Mundey, Nicole J. Lubans and Chris C. Lonsdale

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a resistancetraining (RT) and lifestyle-activity program for sedentary older adults. Eligible participants (N = 44) were randomized to an 8-wk intervention or a control group. The primary outcome was lower body muscle strength, and participants completed a range of secondary outcomes. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for lower body muscle strength (difference = 3.9 repetitions [reps], 95% CI = 2.0–5.8 reps; p < .001; d = 1.0). Changes in secondary outcomes were generally small and not statistically significant. Attendance and program satisfaction were both high. A combined elastic-tubing RT and lifestyle-activity program delivered in the community setting is an efficacious and feasible approach to improve health in sedentary older adults.