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Cynthia J. Wright, Shelley W. Linens and Mary S. Cain

Context:

There is minimal patient-oriented evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions targeted to reduce symptoms associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). In addition, clinicians aiming to prioritize care by implementing only the most effective components of a rehabilitative program have very little evidence on comparative efficacy.

Objective:

To assess the comparative efficacy of 2 common ankle rehabilitation techniques (wobble-board [WB] balance training and ankle strengthening using resistance tubing [RT]) using patient-oriented outcomes.

Design:

Randomized controlled trial.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Patients:

40 patients with CAI randomized into 2 treatment groups: RT and WB. CAI inclusion criteria included a history of an ankle sprain, recurrent “giving way,” and a Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) score ≤25.

Interventions:

Participants completed 5 clinician-oriented tests (foot-lift test, time-in-balance, Star Excursion Balance Test, figure-of-8 hop, and side-hop) and 5 patient-oriented questionnaires (CAIT, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure [FAAM], Activities of Daily Living [ADL] and FAAM Sport scale, Short-Form 36 [SF-36], and Global Rating of Function [GRF]). After baseline testing, participants completed 12 sessions over 4 wk of graduated WB or RT exercise, then repeated baseline tests.

Main Outcome Measures:

For each patient- and clinician-oriented test, separate 2 × 2 RMANOVAs analyzed differences between groups over time (alpha set at P = .05).

Results:

There was a significant interaction between group and time for the FAAM-ADL (P = .04). Specifically, the WB group improved postintervention (P < .001) whereas the RT group remained the same (P = .29). There were no other significant interactions or significant differences between groups (all P > .05). There were significant improvements postintervention for the CAIT, FAAM-Sport, GRF, SF-36, and all 5 clinician-oriented tests (all P < .001).

Conclusions:

A single-exercise 4-wk intervention can improve patient- and clinician-oriented outcomes in individuals with CAI. Limited evidence indicates that WB training was more effective than RT.

Level of Evidence:

Therapy, level 1b.

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Jocelyn Kernot, Lucy Lewis, Tim Olds and Carol Maher

additional secondary aim was to assess the feasibility and engagement of the MSIU program. Methods Overview A 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (allocation ratio 1∶1∶1) was undertaken in Adelaide, South Australia, between September 2013 and October 2014. Postpartum women were recruited in teams, with

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Rebekka Pomiersky, Bastian Abel, Christian Werner, André Lacroix, Klaus Pfeiffer, Martina Schäufele and Klaus Hauer

. Also, a detailed documentation by a subclassification of PA (e.g., total PA vs. sportive, leisure, household, professional PA) was not provided, while assessment methods were partly not adequate or validated for older impaired persons with and without cognitive impairment. Randomized controlled trials

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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang

postintervention, participants were asked to complete the Stroop and determination tests. The sample size was estimated using a meta-analysis that reported a small to moderate positive effect of PA on EFs based on randomized controlled trials (i.e., Hedges’ g  = .24 in de Greeff et al. ( 2018 ); effect size [ES

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Melissa L. Anderson, Anne Renz, Theresa E. Matson, Amy K. Lee, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David E. Arterburn, Paul A. Gardiner, Jacqueline Kerr and Jennifer B. McClure

randomized controlled trial to reduce sitting time in adults over the age of 60 with obesity. A secondary goal was to explore changes in cardiometabolic (fasting glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure) and functional health (Short Physical Performance Battery) outcomes. Methods Study Overview We conducted

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

exercises alone. Methods Study Design The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial of 2 exercise protocols for NNP. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Hacettepe University, and all patients signed the informed consent form. The trial protocol was conducted in accordance with the

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Alex T. Strauss, Austin J. Parr, Daniel J. Desmond, Ashmel T. Vargas and Russell T. Baker

study was to investigate the acute effect of a single application of TMR ® on FMS ™ composite scores in participants with low baseline composite scores (ie, ≤13) on the FMS ™ . Methods A two-level blinded randomized control trial methodology was utilized to examine the effect of TMR ® on participants

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Nicholas Gilson, Jim McKenna and Carlton Cooke

Background:

This study explored the experiences of university employees recruited to a 10-week randomized controlled trial (n = 64). The trial compared “walking routes” with “walking-while-working” on daily step totals, showing that, compared with controls, interventions resulted in around 1000 extra steps per day.

Methods:

A subsample of 15 academic and administrative employees from intervention groups completed interviews at the end of intervention. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to inductive coding within the major themes of benefits/positives and problems/barriers.

Findings:

Both interventions benefited employee health and work productivity but were difficult to implement in the workplace. Involvement in walking routes was challenged by the difficulties of managing time pressures, and individuals assigned to walking-while-working had to deal with local management subcultures favoring physical presence and inactivity.

Conclusions:

Findings highlight the need for further research, advocate the value of walking at work, and provide insights into the challenges that face staff in workplace interventions.

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Kathleen A. Martin and Adrienne R. Sinden

This study examined exercise-adherence rates and their predictors across 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving older adults (age ≥ 55 years). On average, participants completed 78% of their prescribed exercise bouts. Adherence tended to be greater in strength- and flexibility-exercise training programs (M = 87%) than in aerobic-exercise training programs (M = 75%). The best adherers were individuals who were fitter at baseline, had a history of a physically active lifestyle, were nonsmokers, and had higher exercise self-efficacy. Different variables predicted adherence (a) at different time points in a RCT. (b) to different types of exercise, and (c) to different aspects of the exercise prescription (i.e., frequency, intensity, and duration). The findings suggest that older adults might be more adherent to exercise prescriptions than younger adults are. There is also a need for more theory-based research to examine predictors of adherence to various aspects of the exercise prescription.

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Inne Aerts, Elke Cumps, Evert Verhagen, Bram Wuyts, Sam Van De Gucht and Romain Meeusen

Context:

In jump-landing sports, the injury mechanism that most frequently results in an injury is the jump-landing movement. Influencing the movement patterns and biomechanical predisposing factors are supposed to decrease injury occurrence.

Objectives:

To evaluate the influence of a 3-mo coach-supervised jump-landing prevention program on jump-landing technique using the jump-landing scoring (JLS) system.

Design:

Randomized controlled trial.

Setting:

On-field.

Participants:

116 athletes age 15–41 y, with 63 athletes in the control group and 53 athletes in the intervention group. Intervention: The intervention program in this randomized control trial was administered at the start of the basketball season 2010–11. The jump-landing training program, supervised by the athletic trainers, was performed for a period of 3 mo.

Main Outcome Measures:

The jump-landing technique was determined by registering the jump-landing technique of all athletes with the JLS system, pre- and postintervention.

Results:

After the prevention program, the athletes of the male and female intervention groups landed with a significantly less erect position than those in the control groups (P < .05). This was presented by a significant improvement in maximal hip flexion, maximal knee flexion, hip active range of motion, and knee active range of motion. Another important finding was that postintervention, knee valgus during landing diminished significantly (P < .05) in the female intervention group compared with their control group. Furthermore, the male intervention group significantly improved (P < .05) the scores of the JLS system from pre- to postintervention.

Conclusion:

Malalignments such as valgus position and insufficient knee flexion and hip flexion, previously identified as possible risk factors for lower-extremity injuries, improved significantly after the completion of the prevention program. The JLS system can help in identifying these malalignments.

Level of Evidence:

Therapy, prevention, level 1b.