The aim of the recent Inter-Association Task Force held in Washington, D.C. at the 2013 Youth Safety Summit determined best practice recommendations for preventing sudden death in secondary school athletics. This document highlights the major health and safety practices and policies in high school athletics that are paramount to keep student athletes safe. The purpose of this commentary is to review the findings of the document developed by the task force and to provide possible areas where research is needed to continue to educate medical practitioners, players, coaches, and parents on ways to prevent tragedies from occurring during sport.
Riana R. Pryor, Robert A. Huggins and Douglas J. Casa
K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin and Kim Graber
Occupational socialization theory describes the acculturation, professional preparation, and organizational socialization of physical education teachers and addresses factors that contribute to their decisions and behaviors. Utilizing occupational socialization theory as a grounding framework, this paper summarizes research conducted on teacher socialization in physical education and provides recommendations for future research. Each of the three phases of socialization is reviewed as are related constructs. The paper concludes with a discussion of socialization into physical education more generally and addresses the limitations of the current body of literature. Future researchers are encouraged to continue using occupational socialization theory as a framework though which to understand the careers and pedagogical decisions of physical education teachers.
Charles F. Morgan, Allison R. Tsuchida, Michael William Beets, Ronald K. Hetzler and Christopher D. Stickley
Physical activity guidelines for youth and adults include recommendations for moderate intensity activity to attain health benefits. Indirect calorimetry studies have consistently reported a 100 ste·min−1 threshold for moderate intensity walking in adults. No indirect calorimetry studies have investigated step-rate thresholds in children and therefore the primary purpose of the study was to determine preliminary step-rate thresholds for moderate physical activity walking in children.
Oxygen consumption was measured at rest and used to determine 3 and 4 age-adjusted metabolic equivalents (A-AMETs) for 4 treadmill trials (self-selected, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 MPH). Two trained observers simultaneously counted children’s steps during each walking trial. Step-rate thresholds associated with moderate-intensity activity, defined as 3 and 4 A-AMETs, were determined using hierarchical linear modeling.
Regression analysis determined an overall step rate of 112 and 134 step·min-1 for 3 and 4 A-AMETs respectively. Body mass index (BMI) weight status and age were positively related to A-AMETs.
We suggest age and BMI weight status specific recommendations that range from a low of 100 step·min-1 threshold (3 A-AMETs) for overweight/obese 11- to 12-year-olds to a high of 140 step·min-1 threshold (4 A-AMETs) for healthy weight 9- to 10-year-old children.
Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata and Koichiro Oka
Although physical activity is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, few studies have described the physical activity required for colon cancer prevention in various sociodemographic subgroups. The current study examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attaining the 2 recommended physical activity criteria for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults.
The sample included 5322 Japanese adults aged 20 to 79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (eg, gender, age, education level, employment status) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. The odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by sociodemographic variables were calculated.
Overall, 23.8% of the study population met the criterion of ≥ 420 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, and 6.4% met the criterion of ≥ 210 minutes of vigorous activity. Being male, highly educated, employed, living with another person, being married and having a higher household income were significantly correlated with the attainment of recommendations.
Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed in gender, education level, employment status, marital status, living conditions, and household income. The findings of the current study imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activity in all demographic groups may be necessary.
Claudia Ridel Juzwiak and Fabio Ancona-Lopez
The objectives of this study were to describe the dietary practices recommended by coaches working with adolescent athletes and to assess their nutritional knowledge. During a regional competition in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 55 coaches were interviewed. These coaches represented 22 cities with athletes enrolled in Olympic gymnastics, tennis, swimming, and judo events. A 3- section questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographic characteristics, dietary recommendations, and nutrition knowledge. Results showed that all coaches recommended general dietary practices during training, with no specific strategies for pre-, during-, and post-training periods. The main objectives of the recommendations for the training period were weight control and muscle mass gain. Deleterious weight control practices were recommended by 27% of the coaches. Specific dietary practices pre and post competition were recommended by 93% and 46% of the coaches, respectively. Participants responded correctly to 70% (SD = 3.2) of the nutrition knowledge questions, with no significant differences (p = .61) between sports. The knowledge test identified a tendency to overvalue proteins, excessively low-fat diets, and food myths. These findings indicate the importance of developing strategies that will enhance the nutritional training of coaches.
Barbara E. Ainsworth, Carl J. Caspersen, Charles E. Matthews, Louise C. Mâsse, Tom Baranowski and Weimo Zhu
Assessment of physical activity using self-report has the potential for measurement error that can lead to incorrect inferences about physical activity behaviors and bias study results.
To provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of physical activity derived from self report.
We provide an overview of presentations and a compilation of perspectives shared by the authors of this paper and workgroup members.
We identified a conceptual framework for reducing errors using physical activity self-report questionnaires. The framework identifies 6 steps to reduce error: 1) identifying the need to measure physical activity, 2) selecting an instrument, 3) collecting data, 4) analyzing data, 5) developing a summary score, and 6) interpreting data. Underlying the first 4 steps are behavioral parameters of type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activities performed, activity domains, and the location where activities are performed. We identified ways to reduce measurement error at each step and made recommendations for practitioners, researchers, and organizational units to reduce error in questionnaire assessment of physical activity.
Self-report measures of physical activity have a prominent role in research and practice settings. Measurement error may be reduced by applying the framework discussed in this paper.
Yael Netz, Rebecca Goldsmith, Tal Shimony, Yosefa Ben-Moshe and Aviva Zeev
The trend of extended life expectancy along with a sedentary lifestyle is typical in Western cultures.
To explore adherence to physical activity recommendations in older adults in Israel.
A random sample of 1,536 Jews and 316 Arabs age 65+ were interviewed and divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups based on official guidelines.
Only 36.4% of the Jewish sector and 19.6% of the Arab sector are sufficiently active. Men are more active than women, the secular are more active than the religious among both Jews and Arabs, and more years of education, a higher income, and fewer diseases and medications are related to higher levels of physical activity.
To slow down biological age decline with physical activity, intervention programs specifically tailored for culturally diverse groups are suggested—for example, recruiting prominent religious leaders to promote physical activity in religious populations.
Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Bert Carron, Mark Eys, Deborah Feltz, Chris Harwood, Lother Linz, Roland Seiler and Marion Sulprizio
Working with teams and training groups is a common and major challenge for applied sport psychologists. This document is a position statement on the rationales, methods, and procedures of team-focused approaches in the practice of sport psychology. Furthermore, practice recommendations and research desiderata are discussed. To develop the paper, a consensus conference with nine experts from North America and Europe was held in Spring 2010. First, the paper presents the rationale for team-focused interventions and addresses the concepts of team cohesion, team efficacy, team potency, and a task involving leadership style. Second, the contributions of sport psychologists to enhancing group functioning are discussed, including methods for enhancing interpersonal skills, team climate, and coach athlete relationships. Third, determinants of how sport psychologists decide procedure and build trust in working with teams are articulated. Finally, the consensus group recommends an intensified effort to examine the effects and practice applicability of theory-driven, ecologically valid interventions.
Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Patrick O. McKeon
Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted . . . but to weigh and consider.” — Francis Bacon (1561–1626) A highly promoted element of evidence-based practice (EBP) is the Strength of Recommendation (SOR) . The SOR is usually a letter grade (A, B, or C) and is a
Steven Couture, Benoit Lamarche, Eliane Morissette, Veronique Provencher, Pierre Valois, Claude Goulet and Vicky Drapeau
The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches’ knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. “Leanness sports” were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and “non-leanness sports” were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p < .05). Coaches who participated in coaching certification also obtained better results than those without a coaching certification. The most popular source of information about nutrition used by coaches was the Internet at 55%. The two most popular nutrition practices that coaches recommended to improve athlete performance were hydration and consumption of protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.