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Carolee Winstein

trials include the Extremity Constraint Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) trial ( Wolf et al., 2006 ), the VA-Robot trial ( Lo et al., 2010 ), the Locomotor Experience applied Post Stroke (LEAPS) trial ( Duncan et al., 2011 ), the Epidural Electrical Stimulation for Stroke Rehabilitation (Everest

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Kimmery Migel and Erik Wikstrom

subsequent LAS 3 and can alter talar-loading patterns, leading to the development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. 2 Gait adaptations have been found to persist despite participation in traditional rehabilitation program focusing on strength, range of motion, and neuromuscular control. 2 Therefore

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

secondary to pain, are thought to induce scapular dysfunction. 11 – 14 Although changes in the axioscapular muscle behavior result from neck pain and aim to protect the region, in the long term it is speculated that they exacerbate neck pain. 10 , 15 – 18 Despite more comprehensive rehabilitation programs

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

Key Points ▸ Fear-avoidance and the pain tension cycle contribute to chronic pain. ▸ Massage may modulate physiological and psychological factors associated with pain postinjury. ▸ Breaking the pain tension cycle facilitates progression in rehabilitation and earlier recovery. Pain is often

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Gareth Ryan, Heather Johnston and Janice Moreside

Up to 67% of individuals will experience some form of shoulder injury in their lifetime. 1 External rotation (ER) is one of the most commonly prescribed shoulder strengthening exercises for injury rehabilitation and prevention. 2 , 3 Although primarily intended to target the infraspinatus, the

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Michael Girdwood, Liam West, David Connell and Peter Brukner

symptoms following the initial injury. An acute case of QF strain is reported in a tennis player, sustained during the follow through of a serve. 9 Another example is reported slipping in a lunged position while playing badminton. 8 Both of these cases discuss a similar rehabilitation to return to play

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Sean A. Jones, Derek N. Pamukoff, Timothy C. Mauntel, J. Troy Blackburn and Joseph B. Myers

treated with rehabilitative exercises. 4 – 6 Furthermore, rehabilitative programs that are used to treat shoulder pathology have considerable overlap with programs that are used for shoulder injury prevention. 7 Therapeutic exercises are commonly used for restoring and maintaining proper function of the

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Saud F. Alsubaie, Susan L. Whitney, Joseph M. Furman, Gregory F. Marchetti, Kathleen H. Sienko and Patrick J. Sparto

Balance training has been found to be useful for all age groups in improving mobility and functionality. 1 – 3 Customized balance exercises and vestibular rehabilitation therapy are considered to be effective options to improve balance by facilitating the central nervous system’s ability to

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Nicholas Hattrup, Hannah Gray, Mark Krumholtz and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

atient/Client Group: concussion, mild traumatic brain injury • I ntervention (or Assessment): treatment, rehabilitation, aerobic exercise, and exercise • C omparison: AND usual care AND rest • O utcome(s): symptom, recovery, and duration Sources of Evidence Searched • The Cochrane Library • CINAHL

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Damien Moore, Tania Pizzari, Jodie McClelland and Adam I. Semciw

fine-wire electromyography (EMG) for the anterior, middle, and posterior GMed segments during 6 common rehabilitation exercises. This may assist clinicians with prescribing targeted rehabilitation programs to prevent, manage, or treat segmental GMed dysfunction that is evident in pathology. 4 , 5