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Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto and Susan Morris

Over the past decade, running as a sport has become a test of human endurance. 1 An increasing number of runners are looking beyond competing in standard marathons, and are taking on ultra-endurance events, multistage, and adventure races. 2 These races not only provide a test of

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Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

; CareFusion, San Diego, CA) was estimated by a continuous incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion on a motorized treadmill (Forma Run 500; Technogym, Seattle, WA) ( Costa et al., 2009 ). To determine running speed for the experimental trials, the treadmill speed was extrapolated from the V ˙ O 2

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Ross Tucker, Michael I. Lambert and Timothy D. Noakes

Purpose:

To analyze pacing strategies employed during men's world-record performances for 800-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m races.

Methods:

In the 800-m event, lap times were analyzed for 26 world-record performances from 1912 to 1997. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, times for each kilometer were analyzed for 32 (1922 to 2004) and 34 (1921 to 2004) world records.

Results:

The second lap in the 800-m event was significantly slower than the first lap (52.0 ± 1.7 vs 54.4 ± 4.9 seconds, P < .00005). In only 2 world records was the second lap faster than the first lap. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, the first and final kilometers were significantly faster than the middle kilometer intervals, resulting in an overall even pace with an end spurt at the end.

Conclusion:

The optimal pacing strategy during world-record performances differs for the 800-m event compared with the 5000-m and 10,000-m events. In the 800-m event, greater running speeds are achieved in the first lap, and the ability to increase running speed on the second lap is limited. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, an end spurt occurs because of the maintenance of a reserve during the middle part of the race. In all events, pacing strategy is regulated in a complex system that balances the demand for optimal performance with the requirement to defend homeostasis during exercise.

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Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C. Frederick and Dirk De Clercq

The classification of foot contact patterns, ie, rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot contact patterns, has proven relevant due to a possible relation with running economy or performance. 1 , 2 However, this classification is particularly relevant because of its relationship with the intensity of

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride

-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was to determine if ingestion of a supplement containing a tomato complex with lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene (T-LPP) during a 4-week period would attenuate inflammation, muscle damage, and oxidative stress during recovery from a 2-hr running bout that

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Ben Langley, Mary Cramp and Stewart C. Morrison

Traditional running-injury paradigms have been challenged within the literature, 1 yet still underpin running shoe design. As such, running shoes are still designed with stability and cushioning features that are thought to influence the rate and/or magnitude of foot motion and impact loading. 2

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Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel and Romuald Lepers

Prolonged whole-body exercise, such as running or cycling, is well known to induce a decrease in maximal force produced by the knee extensors (ie, muscle fatigue). 1 – 5 This decrease in force production capacity is caused by an inability of the central nervous system to maximally recruit the

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

higher running speeds ( Jørgensen et al., 2009 ; John et al., 2010 ). Notably, emerging evidence suggest that thigh-placed accelerometers may be a valid alternative in order to distinguish between various types of activities, such as sitting, standing, cycling, walking, and running ( Skotte et al., 2014

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

et al., 2017b ). Although GIS occurs across a wide range of exercise types and durations, its incidence is substantially greater as the exercise duration increases ( Costa et al., 2017b ), particularly while running ( Pfeiffer et al., 2012 ) and in hot ambient conditions ( Snipe & Costa, 2018

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Denis Arvisais, Marie Roubeix, Carl Binet and Laurent Bosquet

described as a percentage of VO 2 max or maximal heart rate. 3 , 4 In recent years, however, convincing evidence has emerged indicating that strength training may also have a positive impact on middle- and long-distance performance (running, cycling, cross-country skiing) and its key determinants for