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Fenna Walhain, Marloes van Gorp, Kenneth S. Lamur, Dirkjan H.E.J. Veeger and Annick Ledebt

Background:

Health-related fitness (HRF) and motor coordination (MC) can be influenced by children’s environment and lifestyle behavior. This study evaluates the association between living environment and HRF, MC, and physical and sedentary activities of children in Suriname.

Methods:

Tests were performed for HRF (morphological, muscular, and cardiorespiratory component), gross MC (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder), fine MC (Movement Assessment Battery for Children), and self-reported activities in 79 urban and 77 rural 7-year-old Maroon children. Urban-rural differences were calculated by an independent sample t test (Mann-Whitney U test if not normally distributed) and χ2 test.

Results:

No difference was found in body mass index, muscle strength, and the overall score of gross and fine MC. However, urban children scored lower in HRF on the cardiorespiratory component (P ≤ .001), in gross MC on walking backward (P = .014), and jumping sideways (P = 0.011). They scored higher in the gross MC component moving sideways (P ≤ .001) and lower in fine MC on the trail test (P = .036) and reported significantly more sedentary and fewer physical activities than rural children.

Conclusions:

Living environment was associated with certain components of HRF, MC, and physical and sedentary activities of 7-year-old children in Suriname. Further research is needed to evaluate the development of urban children to provide information for possible intervention and prevention strategies.

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Nurdiana Zainol Abidin, Wendy J. Brown, Bronwyn Clark, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed and Rabindarjeet Singh

We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p < .05), and participants with higher levels of education provide longer periods of accelerometer wearing hours (p < .01). Eighty-seven percent of participants reported ‘no issues’ with wearing the meter. This study suggests that accelerometry is a feasible method to assess the physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.

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Michelle C. Kegler, Deanne W. Swan, Iris Alcantara, Louise Wrensford and Karen Glanz

Background:

This study examines the relative contribution of social (eg, social support) and physical (eg, programs and facilities) aspects of worksite, church, and home settings to physical activity levels among adults in rural communities.

Methods:

Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 268 African American and Caucasian adults, ages 40–70, living in southwest Georgia. Separate regression models were developed for walking, moderate, vigorous, and total physical activity as measured in METs-minutes-per-week.

Results:

Social support for physical activity was modest in all 3 settings (mean scores 1.5–1.9 on a 4-point scale). Participants reported limited (<1) programs and facilities for physical activity at their worksites and churches. An interaction of physical and social aspects of the home setting was observed for vigorous and moderate physical activity and total METs. There were also interactions between gender and social support at church for vigorous activity among women, and between race and the physical environment at church for moderate physical activity. A cross-over interaction was found between home and church settings for vigorous physical activity. Social support at church was associated with walking and total METs.

Conclusions:

Homes and churches may be important behavioral settings for physical activity among adults in rural communities.

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Ian Cook, Marianne Alberts and Estelle V. Lambert

Background:

We describe the effect of 2 different accelerometer cut-points on physical activity (PA) patterns in rural and urban black South African women.

Methods:

Hip-mounted uni-axial accelerometers were worn for 6 to 7 days by rural (n = 272) and urban (n = 16) participants. Twenty-hour (4 AM to 12 AM) PA counts (cts) and volumes (min·day−1) were extracted: sedentary (SED, <100 cts·min−1), light (100–759 cts·min−1), moderate-1 (MOD1, 760–1951 cts·min−1), moderate-2 to vigorous (MOD2VG, ≥1952 cts·min−1), and bouts ≥10 min for ≥760 cts·min−1 (MOD1VGbt) and ≥1952 cts·min−1 (MOD2VGbt).

Results:

Valid data were obtained from 263 rural women and 16 urban women. Total counts and average counts were higher (+80,399 cts·day−1, +98 cts·min−1.day−1) (P < .01), SED lower (−61 min·day−1, P = .0042), MOD1 higher (+65 min·day−1, P < .0001), and MOD1VGbt higher (+19 min·day−1, P = .0179) in rural women compared with urban women. Estimated adherence (≥30 min·day−1 for 5 days·wk−1) was 1.4-fold higher in rural women than urban women for MOD-1VGbt, but 3.3-fold higher in urban women than rural women for MOD2VGbt.

Conclusions:

Rural women accumulate greater amounts of PA than urban women within a particular count band. Depending on which moderate PA cut-point was used to estimate PA public health adherence, rural women could be classified as less physically active than urban women.

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J. Jaime Miranda, Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco, Robert H Gilman, Jose L. Avilez, Liam Smeeth, William Checkley, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz and the CRONICAS Cohort Study Group

Background:

Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban).

Methods:

Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study’s baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (<600 MET-min/week) and transport-related physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood’s safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented.

Results:

Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%–94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%–10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%–43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, being from rural settings was associated with 3% higher prevalence of leisure time physical inactivity relative to highly urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01–1.54).

Conclusions:

Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

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Nathanael G. Mitchell, Justin B. Moore, Wendy S. Bibeau and Kathleen M. Rudasill

Background:

Levels of physical activity decline throughout childhood. Children’s physical self-perceptions have been found to relate to their physical activity. Understanding the relationships among physical self-perceptions, obesity, and physical activity could have important implications for interventions in children.

Methods:

The current study investigated the moderating effect of cardiovascular fitness (CVF, heart rate recovery from a 3-minute step test) on the relationship between obesity (BMI, waist circumference) and physical self-perceptions (athletic competence, physical appearance) in 104 fourth- and fifth-grade children from a small rural community.

Results:

Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that CVF moderated the relations between BMI and waist circumference on athletic competence. For children with lower fitness, higher waist circumference was associated with lower athletic competence, while for children with higher fitness levels, higher BMI was associated with higher athletic competence. Results also indicated that both BMI and waist circumference were negatively related to physical appearance. CVF moderated these relations such that only children with lower fitness, greater BMI and waist circumference was associated with poorer physical appearance scores.

Conclusions:

Implications include the need for support of fitness programs to promote psychological well-being and to investigate the relationship between obesity and physical self-perceptions within the context of fitness.

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

distrust of outsiders and of the formal health care system. 19 , 20 Furthermore, rural Appalachia has environmental, economic, and social characteristics that influence health problems. 8 Reduced educational opportunities and high unemployment have led to economic instability and persistent poverty

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Silvia Aranda-García, Albert Busquets, Antoni Planas, Joan A. Prat-Subirana and Rosa M. Angulo-Barroso

Purpose:

Gait speed is related to physical function in older adults. This cross-sectional study examined the best predictors of maximal gait speed (MGS) among physical abilities, and general factors in healthy, rural community-dwelling older adults.

Methods:

MGS, muscle strength, and postural sway were measured in 55 community-dwelling participants (age, 72.1 ± 6.8, range 61–87 years; 72.7% women). Two stepwise regressions were used to find MGS predictors in two models: physical abilities and global.

Results:

Strength of knee extensors with 60° of knee flexion (KStrength60°) and maximal distance in the anterior-posterior direction with eyes closed explained 50.2% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the physical abilities model. KStrength60°, age, and level of physical activity explained 63.9% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the global model.

Conclusions:

Regardless of the model, KStrength60° was the best predictor of MGS in rural female older adults. Future research should examine the generalization of these findings to rural male older adults.

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Robert Vallandingham, Zachary Winkelmann, Lindsey Eberman and Kenneth Games

for clinical practice improvement. In order to systematically determine the frequency of use of clinical recommendations at the point of care, we performed a retrospective study examining the strategies used, including the recognition and management, by rural secondary school athletic trainers (ATs

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Michael C. Harding, Quinn D. Bott and Christopher E. Jonas

on O‘ahu’s north shore. As the first project green lighted by a rural private–public partnership, the path’s intent was to promote better health, provide a safe route of transportation, and decrease traffic in other areas. The planning period enlisted the help of key stakeholders within the community