The present study examined the perceptions of coaches to identify and assess the important areas in which athletic administrators may provide support. A total of 173 NCAA college coaches responded to a questionnaire consisting of 46 items that elicited the importance attached to each item. Principal component analysis of the importance data set yielded six components: Game Management, Decision Making, Nondiscriminatory Work Environment, Job Benefits/Salary, Program Support, and Evaluation. Multivariate analyses of variance (MÁNOVA) was used to analyze the set of dependent variables (Importance of Items) with the independent variables (Gender and Division). The MÁNOVA showed a significant relationship for the main effects of gender and division for the importance of the components. Univariate analyses indicated a significant difference between males and females on the Decision Making component. Male coaches rated Decision Making more important than female coaches. Univariate analyses further revealed significant differences for the components Program Support and Nondiscriminatory Work Environment by division. Tukey's post-hoc analyses showed that Division III coaches rated Program Support significantly higher than those in Division I and II. No significant difference was found between Division I and II coaches. Regarding Nondiscriminatory Work Environment, a significant difference was found between Division I and III coaches in that Division III coaches rated this component significantly higher than their counterparts in Division I.
Donna L. Pastore, Bernie Goldfine and Harold Riemer
Timothy D. DeSchriver
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between game-specific attendance in Major League Soccer (MLS) and the presence of Freddy Adu in matches during the 2004 season. A demand model for attendance during Adu’s first year in MLS was estimated using ordinary least squares and fixed-effects multiple-regression analysis. The regression equation explained 67% of the variation in game-specific attendance and 9 of the 22 explanatory variables were statistically significant at the .05 level. It was found that an additional 10,958 spectators attended games in which Freddy Adu was playing, holding all else constant. Furthermore, it was estimated that these additional spectators generated about $3.25 million in revenue from ticket, concession, and merchandise sales in the 2004 season. This amount is far greater than the $500,000 annual salary paid to Adu, and the findings support the claim that from a financial perspective the signing of the 14-year old Adu was highly beneficial to MLS.
Sharon R. Guthrie, T. Michelle Magyar, Stephanie Eggert and Craig Kain
Researchers have extensively documented gender differences in negotiation perceptions and performance which, in turn, may contribute to the persistence of salary and workplace inequity between women and men. The purpose of this study was to determine if these differences existed among a sample of 228 athletes (women n = 151 and men n = 77) who had competed in sport at high school, competitive club, college, or through professional levels for 15 years. More specifically, gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiation were investigated in order to determine whether the three factors associated with the Babcock, Gelfand, Small, and Stayn (2006) Propensity to Initiate Negotiation Model (i.e., recognition of opportunity, sense of entitlement, and apprehension) explained and mediated such differences. Propensity to initiate negotiation (PIN) was operationally defined as self-reported responses to a series of hypothetical negotiation scenarios, as well as recent and anticipated future negotiation experiences. Females reported significantly more negotiation apprehension than males; they did not differ, however, in their recognition of opportunities and sense of entitlement associated with negotiation. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Susan Hofacre and Scott Branvold
Two hundred sixty-one participants in a baseball career seminar and 90 minor league front office personnel were surveyed to examine (a) what characteristics are viewed as important for a front office career in baseball and (b) how job seekers' expectations correspond to what people working in baseball say is reality. Experience and contacts were seen by both groups as important for entering the field, and both groups viewed speaking, time management, and organizational skills as necessary abilities. Enjoyable work was ranked highest as part of a baseball career by both job seekers and baseball personnel, while free time was ranked lowest as an outcome from such a career. Spearman Rho analysis reflected that expectations of job seekers correspond to baseball personnel rankings in terms of relative importance of various skills and job characteristics. However, Z-test comparisons showed job seekers score several skills higher in absolute importance than front office personnel do, including knowledge of baseball and general sports, and several job characteristics as more likely to exist, including job stability and good salary.
Soonhwan Lee and Joonyoung Han
The purpose of this study was to examine the required skills and educational background of internship students from the on-site supervisors’ point of view. A questionnaire examined the role of the internship, the skills student interns should possess and several other issues related to the intern’s experiences including the minimum number of hours for student interns’ best experiences, preferred academic backgrounds of student interns, the responsibilities of faculty internship advisors, stipend or salary, important skills student interns should possess, number of student interns organizations accept, practitioners’ thoughts on requiring internships in sport management, chances for student interns to be hired afterwards, and internship evaluation. According to 36 on-site internship supervisors’ responses to the questionnaire, 50% of the major North American professional sport leagues were paying student interns equivalent to only minimum wage or a slightly higher rate compared to the national average a paid intern was receiving ($15.00-$16.00 per hour). Other findings were the number of student interns accepted and the number of hours those interns were expected to work. However, no specific courses were required of students in order to be considered for internships. Overall, grade point average (GPA) was not found to be a main factor on-site internship supervisors used to select appropriate student interns. While it is generally assumed that a cooperative relationship among the student, the onsite internship supervisor and the academic faculty supervisor is vital, on-site internship supervisors were not as cooperative as the literature suggests. It was also determined that student interns were not consistently evaluated to any great extent and therefore a universal manual should be developed for assessment purposes. The findings of this study also documented that on-site internship supervisors and academic faculty supervisors held different expectations and perceptions in terms of fulfilling the requirements for a degree.
” is available to read in its entirety, at www.nata.org/practice-patient-care/risk-liability/integrity-in-practice . U.S. Department of Labor Rules on Salary and Overtime Protections In April, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) issued a new fact sheet on higher education institutions and overtime pay
Heather J. Lawrence, Andy J. Fodor, Chris L. Ullrich, Nick R. Kopka and Peter J. Titlebaum
estimated that a football program would require $2.15 million annually in operating funds from their first competitive year onward. Operating expenses include student athletic aid; coaching salaries and benefits; support staff salaries and benefits; recruiting; team travel; equipment and uniforms; event
interleague play, increased globalization, expansion teams, and extended playoff seasons all helped to increase profits for teams and sponsors, not to mention salaries for players. However, each of these initiatives and changes came with what the author describes as an indirect negative consequence, as he
Carrie S. Baker and Gary B. Wilkerson
. Participants were asked to provide demographic information (years in the profession, salary range, sex, job role) and to complete the Institute for Collegiate Sports Medicine (ICSM) College and University Athletic Trainer Stress Survey. 19 The 25-item survey has a five-level set of response options for each
Anthony Krautmann, Peter von Allmen and Stephen J.K. Walters
impact the contract structure (length and incentives). Berri et al. ( 2015 ) looked at salary determination using a two-stage bargaining model in which players (and their agents) bargain for a share of fixed revenues. They found no agency effects in their original specification of the model. When