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Maria Hagstromer, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Pekka Oja and Michael Sjostrom

Background:

The aim of this study was to compare physical activity components in the long, self-administrated version of IPAQ with an accelerometer in a population sample.

Methods:

In total 980 subjects (18-65 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph) for 7 consecutive days and thereafter filled in the IPAQ. Measures of total physical activity, time spent in moderate and in vigorous activity as well as time spent sitting as assessed by the IPAQ and the Actigraph were compared.

Results:

The results showed significant low to moderate correlations (Rs = 0.07−0.36) between the 2 instruments and significantly (P < .001) higher values for sitting and vigorous intensity physical activity from the IPAQ compared with the Actigraph. The higher the values reported by the IPAQ the bigger differences were seen between the instruments. Comparison between the tertiles of total physical activity by the 2 instruments showed significant overall association with consistent agreement in the low and the high tertiles.

Conclusion:

The long form of IPAQ is a valid measure of physical activity in population research. However, the IPAQ likely overestimates actual physical activity as shown by its limited ability to classify adults into low and high categories of physical activity based on accelerometer data.

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Lisa M. Barnett, Leah E. Robinson, E. Kipling Webster and Nicola D. Ridgers

Background:

The purpose was to determine the reliability of an instrument designed to assess young children’s perceived movement skill competence in 2 diverse samples.

Methods:

A pictorial instrument assessed 12 perceived Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) based on the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition. Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) and internal consistency analyses were conducted. Paired sample t tests assessed change in mean perceived skill scores. Bivariate correlations between the intertrial difference and the mean of the trials explored proportional bias.

Results:

Sample 1 (S1) were culturally diverse Australian children (n = 111; 52% boys) aged 5 to 8 years (mean = 6.4, SD = 1.0) with educated parents. Sample 2 (S2) were racially diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged American children (n = 110; 57% boys) aged 5 to 10 years (mean = 6.8, SD = 1.1). For all children, the internal consistency for 12 FMS was acceptable (S1 = 0.72, 0.75, S2 = 0.66, 0.67). ICCs were higher in S1 (0.73) than S2 (0.50). Mean changes between trials were small. There was little evidence of proportional bias.

Conclusion:

Lower values in S2 may be due to differences in study demographic and execution. While the instrument demonstrated reliability/internal consistency, further work is recommended in diverse samples.

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Jacqueline D. Goodway and Leah E. Robinson

This commentary examines the argument for early sport specialization versus sport sampling from a physical growth and motor development perspective. Three developmental frameworks are examined (Mountain of Motor Development, Developmental Model of Sport Participation, Spirals of Engagement Trajectory model) to make the case that a broad base of fundamental motor skill competence is necessary in the early years before sport specialization in the adolescent years. Early sport specialization is criticized from the standpoint of increased risk for overuse injury, concerns about long-term growth, and the fact that early and intense practice schedules often do not differentiate elite versus nonelite athletes. A strong argument is made for early sport sampling to acquire a broad base of fundamental motor skills to apply to different sports, and to allow physical maturity to develop before specializing in sport. Such an approach also better equips a child to be active across the lifespan.

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Niina Lintu, Kai Savonen, Anna Viitasalo, Tuomo Tompuri, Jussi Paananen, Mika P. Tarvainen and Timo Lakka

Background:

There are few studies on determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among girls and boys separately in population samples of children.

Methods:

We therefore investigated the determinants of CRF, assessed by maximal workload per height using allometric scaling, in a population sample of 162 girls and 177 boys aged 6 to 8 years. We used automated bootstrap feature selection and linear regression models.

Results:

The strongest determinants of CRF among girls were maximal heart rate (HR; standardized regression coefficient [β] = 0.31, P < .001), unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.29, P < .001), lean body mass (β = 0.23, P = .001), and errors in static balance test (β = –0.16, P = .02), accounting altogether for 25.7% of variation in CRF. In boys, unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.24, P < .001), resting HR (β = –0.25, P < .001), hand grip strength (β = 0.21, P = .001), errors in static balance test (β = –0.16, P = .01), organized football (β = 0.16, P = .01), and unsupervised trampoline jumping (β = 0.14, P = .04) were the strongest determinants of CRF, accounting altogether for 29.7% of variation in CRF.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that unsupervised physical activity is sufficient in improving CRF in both sexes. Furthermore, larger muscle mass and better balance are associated with higher CRF that has to be taken into account when assessing CRF using maximal cycle ergometer exercise test among children.

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Meghan Schreck, Robert Althoff, Meike Bartels, Eco de Geus, Jeremy Sibold, Christine Giummo, David Rubin and James Hudziak

Few studies have explored the relation between withdrawn behavior (WB) and exercise and screen time. The current study used exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of leisure-time exercise behavior (LTEB) and screentime sedentary behavior (STSB) in a clinical sample of youth. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the relations between WB and LTEB and STSB, conditional on gender. WB was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist, and LTEB and STSB were measured using the Vermont Health Behavior Questionnaire. LTEB and STSB emerged as two separate factors. Gender moderated the structure of STSB only. For boys and girls, WB was inversely related to LTEB but not significantly related to STSB. LTEB and STSB are best represented as distinct, uncorrelated constructs. In addition, withdrawn youth may be at risk for poor health outcomes due to lower rates of LTEB. Mental health clinicians, sports psychologists, and related providers may be uniquely qualified to enhance motivation for sports participation in withdrawn youth.

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Lise Gauvin and Attila Szabo

This study examined the effects of 1-week exercise deprivation on the mood and subjectively perceived physical symptoms of college students highly committed to exercise; it employed the experience sampling method (ESM). Male and female subjects (N=21) filled out questionnaires four random times a day in response to the tone of a pager for 35 days. Subjects who were randomly assigned to the experimental condition refrained from exercising between Days 15 and 21 of the procedure whereas those in the control group maintained their regular levels of physical activity. Results indicated that subjects in the experimental group reported more symptoms than at baseline and in comparison to the control group during and following the week of exercise withdrawal. Results are interpreted in light of Pennebaker's (1982) competing cue, selective attention, and schema hypotheses. Suggestions for the application of the ESM in exercise and sport psychology are provided.

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Kacey C. Neely and Nicholas L. Holt

The overall purpose of this study was to examine parents’ perspectives on the benefits of sport participation for their young children. Specifically, this study addressed two research questions: (1) What benefits do parents perceive their children gain through participation in organized youth sport programs? (2) How do parents think their children acquire these benefits? Twenty-two parents (12 mothers, 10 fathers) of children aged 5-8 years participated in individual semistructured interviews. Data were subjected to qualitative analysis techniques based on the interpretive description methodology. Parents reported their children gained a range of personal, social, and physical benefits from participating in sport because it allowed them to explore their abilities and build positive self-perceptions. Parents indicated they believed children acquired benefits when coaches created a mastery-oriented motivational climate that facilitated exploration. Crucially, parents appeared to play the most important role in their children’s acquisition of benefits by seizing “teachable moments” from sport and reinforcing certain principles in the home environment.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Manish Kohli

Objective:

Independent of previously recognized clinical factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (eg, age and race-ethnicity), sedentary behavior has recently been reported to be associated with higher PSA measurements. The extent of interaction of putative clinical factors with sedentary behavior and their impact on PSA levels is unknown. We examined the interaction of previously known PSA influencing demographic patient characteristics with patient sedentary behavior on PSA levels.

Methods:

Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured using an accelerometer in 1690 participants who were included in the analytic sample. Multivariate linear regression analysis across potential clinical and biological modifiers of PSA levels were used to examine the association between sedentary behavior and PSA levels.

Results:

After controlling for covariates, a positive association between sedentary behavior and PSA was detected among distinctive patient groups, including non-Hispanic whites, overweight/obese subjects, hypertensive participants, and participants with evidence of diabetes and those reported to have benign prostate hypertrophy.

Conclusion:

These results suggest that patients with distinct clinical characteristics engaging in sedentary lifestyles are likely to have higher PSA levels.

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Virginie Nicaise, Noe C. Crespo and Simon Marshall

Background:

Even when objective physical activity (PA) measures are preferred, many intervention studies with Latina women rely on self-reports because they are more feasible and the type and domain of PA is of interest.

Purpose:

This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ for detecting intervention-related changes in physical activity compared with accelerometer measurement among Latinas.

Methods:

In March 2007, a community sample of 94 women (mean age = 36.31 ± 9.1 yr; mean body mass index = 31.37 ± 7.13) participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention to increase moderate intensity physical activity (MPA). Participants completed the Spanish-language International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Sp-IPAQ; telephone, long form) and wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and postintervention.

Results:

Both the IPAQ and the ActiGraph accelerometer detected intervention-related increases in MPA; however, these changes were largely uncorrelated. The IPAQ did not have acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity before and after the intervention when compared with objective assessments.

Conclusions:

Data suggest that it is important to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ with Spanish-speaking participants and further research is needed to accurately measure intervention effectiveness using self-reports of PA in Latinas.

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Tales C. Amorim, Mario R. Azevedo and Pedro C. Hallal

Objective:

To evaluate the association between the physical and social environment and physical activity (leisure-time and transport-related) in a population-based sample of adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study including 972 adults (20−69 years) living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil. Physical activity was measured using the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Environmental variables were assessed using a modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale.

Results:

69.8% (95% CI = 66.9−72.7) and 51.9% (95% CI = 48.8−55.1) of the subjects did not reach 150 min/wk on leisure-time and transport-related physical activity, respectively. Subjects living near green areas were more likely to be active in leisure-time, as well as those who reported to live in safe neighborhoods. Transport-related physical activity was higher among individuals living in areas with garbage accumulation, and was lower among those living in neighborhoods which are difficult to walk or cycle due to traffic. Social support was strongly associated with leisure-time physical activity.

Conclusions:

Safety investments, which are urgently required in Brazil, are likely to have a desirable side effect at increasing physical activity at the population level. Building enjoyable and safe public spaces for physical activity practice must be prioritized.