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Daniel Berglind, Lena Hansson, Per Tynelius and Finn Rasmussen

Background:

Levels of physical activity (PA) affect health already at 4 years of age. The aims of this study were to describe levels and patterns of PA and sedentary time (ST) in a sample of 4-year-old Swedish children and to assess the number of children achieving PA guidelines throughout the week.

Methods:

Data from 540 4-year-old children enrolled in the population-based PRIMROSE trial was used. PA was measured for a period of 1 week by the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Average PA, time spent in light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and ST were assessed.

Results:

On average children spent 6.7% of the day in MVPA and 45% of the day being sedentary and 33% (n = 178) of the children met the PA guidelines of 60 minutes of MVPA per day. Boys spent 56.8 (SD 21.8) minutes/day in MVPA, while girls spent 43.0 (SD 18.1) minutes/day in MVPA (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Four-year-old children spent almost half of the day being sedentary and only one-third meet the recommended PA guidelines. This finding is alarming as higher levels of PA, already at 4 years of age, seem to reduce the risk of childhood obesity and provides long-term health benefits.

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Pauline M. Genin, Frédéric Dutheil, Benjamin Larras, Yoland Esquirol, Yves Boirie, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, Corinne Praznoczy, David Thivel and Martine Duclos

The modernization of our societies has resulted in a steady increase in service industry occupations (tertiarization), which have favored increased sedentary time, while reducing occupational physical activity. In less than 50 years, the United States has increased sedentary professions by about 20

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Sarah Kozey-Keadle, John Staudenmayer, Amanda Libertine, Marianna Mavilia, Kate Lyden, Barry Braun and Patty Freedson

Background:

Individuals may compensate for exercise training by modifying nonexercise behavior (ie, increase sedentary time (ST) and decrease nonexercise physical activity [NEPA]).

Purpose:

To compare ST and NEPA during a 12-week exercise training and/or lifestyle intervention.

Methods:

Fifty-seven overweight/obese participants (19 M/39 F) completed the study (mean ± SD; age 43.6 ± 9.9 y, BMI 35.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2). There were no between-group differences in activity levels at baseline. Four-arm quasi-experimental intervention study 1) EX: exercise 5 days per week at a moderate intensity (40% to 65% VO2peak) 2) rST: reduce ST and increase NEPA, 3) EX-rST: combination of EX and rST and 4) CON: maintain habitual behavior.

Results:

For the EX group, ST did not decrease significantly (mean ((95% confidence interval) 0.48 (–2.2 to 3.1)% and there was no changes in NEPA at week-12 compared with baseline. The changes were variable, with approximately 50% of participants increasing ST and decreasing NEPA. The rST group decreased ST (–4.8 (0.8 to 7.9)% and increased NEPA. EX-rST significantly decreased ST (–5.1 (–2.2 to 7.9)% and increased time in NEPA at week-12 compared with baseline. The control group increased ST by 4.3 (0.8 to 7.9)%.

Conclusions:

Changes in nonexercise ST and NEPA are variable among participants in an exercise-training program, with nearly half decreasing NEPA compared with baseline. Interventions targeting multiple behaviors (ST and NEPA) may effectively reduce compensation and increase daily activity.

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Kelly A. Mackintosh, Nicola D. Ridgers, Rachel E. Evans and Melitta A. McNarry

sedentary, nor the accumulation of PA or sedentary time. Indeed, the majority of PA research to date has focused on the total volume of PA rather than the manner in which this activity is accumulated with regard to bout frequency and duration. Gabel et al 21 reported sedentary bouts of ≥5 minutes to be

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James F. Sallis, Justine Nabanoba, David Basangwa, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sandra S. Kasoma, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys and James Mugisha

population without mental illness. Other neighborhood characteristics such as perception of crime safety had a much stronger association with physical activity in outpatients with a mental illness than in the general population. 24 Sedentary time defined as the time spent in behaviors that involve sitting or

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Anna K. Porter, Krystin J. Matthews, Deborah Salvo and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

Most US adolescents do not meet guidelines of at least 60 daily minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. In addition, sedentary behaviors among this age group are of increasing concern. This study examined the association of movement behaviors with cardiovascular fitness among US adolescents.

Methods:

Data from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey were used to assess the association of movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, screen time) with cardiovascular fitness among adolescent males and females. Multiple logistic regressions were used to test the independent and interactive effects of movement behaviors on cardiovascular fitness.

Results:

Among females, physical activity was directly associated with cardiovascular fitness; no significant association was observed between sedentary behaviors and CVF. Among males, sedentary time moderated the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, such that a significant, direct association was only observed among those with high sedentary time (OR: 5.01; 95% CI: 1.60, 15.70).

Conclusions:

Results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that among female US adolescents, physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Among males, the interaction between physical activity and sedentary time seems to be important for cardiovascular fitness. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

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Melody Oliver, Philip J. Schluter, Genevieve N. Healy, El-Shadan Tautolo, Grant Schofield and Elaine Rush

Background:

Breaks in sedentary behavior are associated with reduced body size in general populations. This study is the first to consider the relationship between objectively assessed sedentary breaks and body size in Pacific children and their mothers.

Methods:

Pacific children aged 6 years (n = 393) and their mothers (n = 386) residing in New Zealand were invited to participate in 2006. Sedentary time was assessed via accelerometry. Average frequency, duration, and intensity of breaks in sedentary time per hour were calculated. Waist circumference was assessed and demographic factors collected via questionnaire. Relationships between waist circumference and potential associated factors for participants were assessed using linear regression analyses.

Results:

Accelerometer data were obtained from 126 children (52 boys) and 108 mothers. Mean (standard deviation) waist circumference values for mothers and children were 114 cm (20.1 cm) and 59.4 cm (7.8 cm), respectively. For mothers, time spent sedentary and being an ex/nonsmoker were positively related to waist circumference. For children, watching television every day and having a mother with a high waist circumference was associated with a greater waist circumference.

Conclusion:

Strategies that focus on reducing sedentary time in Pacific mothers and on encouraging television free days in young Pacific children are recommended.

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Mette S. Nielsen, Jonas S. Quist, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Kim F. Michaelsen, Anders Sjödin and Mads F. Hjorth

Background:

Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and movement/nonmovement behaviors have all been linked to risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, the association between childhood movement/nonmovement behaviors and inflammatory markers and adiponectin is unknown.

Methods:

We explored the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated.

Results:

MVPA was negatively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (P < .001) and with CRP and IL-6 in girls (P < .05) independent of sleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both P < .001), and sleep duration with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (P < .001); however, these associations disappeared after mutual adjustments for movement behavior. Sleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P < .01).

Conclusion:

MVPA remained negatively associated with inflammatory markers and adiponectin, and sleep duration variability positively associated with CRP after adjustment for FMI, pubertal status, and other movement behavior. The inverse association between MVPA and adiponectin conflicts with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin.

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Maïté Verloigne, Nicola D. Ridgers, Mai Chinapaw, Teatske Altenburg, Elling Bere, Sveinung Berntsen, Greet Cardon, Johannes Brug, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Wendy Van Lippevelde and Lea Maes

There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children’s sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (> 10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9 ± 0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and posttest. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; β = -3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; β = -4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favor of children from intervention schools (β = -2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; β = -23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (β = +0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children’s sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed.

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Kate A. Bolam, Björn Ekblom, Göran Bergström and Mats Börjesson

Background:

Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

Methods:

A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

Results:

Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

Conclusions:

LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.