This commentary responds to an invitation to discuss sport management from the viewpoint of an administrator. My thoughts are segmented into two streams: (a) the interface of a sports-minded public and sport management and (b) the listing of a few issues and concerns confronting sport management today. The first recognizes the high profile of sport in American society and the rising gross national sport product (GNSP), which have placed sport management programs in the enviable position of visibility and attention. The second plays on several themes: continuing to improve the knowledge and research base, establishing an independent identity while sharing technology within HPER programs, and being sensitive to a growing trend toward more graduate students entering from fields outside sport, leisure, and Wellness.
Dorothy B. Zakrajsek
Erik K.M. Kjeldsen
This study utilized alumni of one sport management graduate program in an effort to investigate career paths in sport management. A representative sample of 126 alumni was selected from a population of 251 students who had graduated over a 10-year period. A total of 69 usable returns were received, for a response rate of 54.8%. Specific points during the professional, preparation period and during the working career were examined as benchmarks in the career path. The number of alumni maintaining jobs in the field at each benchmark shed light on career retention and on the factors contributing to attrition. The five benchmarks selected were entry into the graduate program, exit from the program, the internship, first job, and final job. Salary at each job level and satisfaction were measured in an effort to better understand the nature of a sport management career. The analysis was differentiated by sex and by the various subfields in the sport management profession.
John N. Singer
Sport management scholars must begin to recognize the significance of race and ethnicity as viable epistemological considerations in research inquiry. This article discusses the concept of “epistemological racism” (Scheurich & Young, 1997) and argues that critical race theory (CRT) is a legitimate epistemological and theoretical alternative to research approaches that have typically been based on the dominant worldview (i.e., Eurocentrism), and that it is an appropriate framework for conducting race-based emancipatory research in sport management. In particular, because CRT focuses on issues of justice, liberation, and the empowerment of people of color in a society based on White supremacy (i.e., Eurocentrism), the primary purpose of this article is to provide sport management scholars and students with insight into how CRT’s epistemological and methodological bases could be applied to critical areas of research in our field. The article concludes with some practical suggestions for how we can address epistemological racism in our sport management research and education.
Jacquelyn Cuneen and Janet B. Parks
In the September, 1995 issue of the Journal of Sport Management, W. James Weese suggested that NASSM should develop a more practical focus and philosophy in order to better serve sport management practitioners. He made several recommendations regarding future directions for NASSM and the Journal of Sport Management (JSM) designed to pursue that goal. We respectfully challenge Weese's position, arguing that the primary goal of NASSM and JSM should be to support and fortify the scholarship produced by the sport management professoriate, with the concomitant goal of having an impact on the way sport is managed. We suggest that NASSM and JSM have naturally evolved to protect and enhance sport management education. In the process, they have become eminent providers of continuing education and currently useful research to the sport management professoriate, student-scholars, and practitioners who seek a symbiotic relationship with the academy.
Robert P. Mathner and Christina L.L. Martin
The study sought to examine the accuracy of sport management students’ perceptions of career expectations when compared with perceptions of sport management practitioners. A secondary purpose of the study was to analyze differences in such perceptions over a thirteen year period, comparing only graduate students’ and practitioners’ perceptions. The sample (N = 544) was inclusive of sport management graduate and undergraduate students and sport management industry practitioners. Two stages were used to gather data (1996 and 2010 data collection periods), thus slightly different collection procedures were used. Overall results indicate that significant differences existed between the students’ and practitioners’ perspectives regarding multiple areas: salary expectations, time until first sport management job, time before advancement opportunities, and others. Implications from this study will allow sport management advisors, faculty, and students to have a reference for current industry career trends. With this, students can be better informed and equipped to make career decisions.
Lynn M. Jamieson
This article reviews the development of interest in and concern for training and education of sport specialists. A review of research in competency-based education that relates to sport management and related fields provides an overview of the values of learning about specific job tasks of a sport manager. Competencies in sport management presented from a study of educational, municipal, and military settings show no significant difference between settings and certain significant differences in professional level. Further research is presented that shows differences in how educators and practitioners rate the importance of competencies in the field. Implications for practice suggest that more research is needed in order to gain further understanding of leadership requirements in the sport management profession.
Janet B. Parks and Michael E. Bartley
Scholarship expectations of many universities in the United States are becoming more stringent. The purpose of this study was to examine variables associated with the scholarship of the sport management professoriate. The participants were 266 of the 422 academics in the NASPE-NASSM Sport Management Program List (1991). Chi-square tests of independence (alpha < .004) revealed slight tendencies for (a) younger faculty to have doctorates in areas such as sport management, psychology/sociology of sport, and legal aspects of sport rather than in physical education; (b) younger faculty to have more publications than older faculty; (c) women to be concentrated in the lower ranks and salary ranges; and (d) movement toward gender parity in rank and salary. This study should be replicated in 5 years to discover if these tendencies were precursors of trends.
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin
by permitting, and in some cases even encouraging, behavior such as sexual harassment and sexual assault. However, this issue does not start and end with sport organizations, and a potentially vital step in this process is examining sport management departments, where the next generation of sport
Karen E. Danylchuk and Michael R. Judd
A readership survey of Journal of Sport Management (JSM) subscribers was conducted to investigate the journal's readership and usage. A secondary purpose was to examine the usage of other journals for teaching, research, and publication. A total of 178 respondents answered the survey for a return rate of 44.5%. General satisfaction with the journal was reflected in the positive comments ascribed to the journal as well as in the high ratings for readership and value of each section of the journal. The most frequently mentioned suggestions/comments for the journal were as follows: (a) Make it more practically oriented, (b) increase the number of issues, (c) provide some focus for job positions/openings and contacts for graduates seeking employment, (d) maintain or increase the theoretical orientation, and (e) provide more international contributions. JSM was considered the most important journal for the sport management profession by 76% of the respondents.
Robert E. Rinehart
According to Paton, sport management research went through several phases up to the 1990s: a praxis phase, based upon “administrative principles, usually developed by authorities in the field, and upon program planning in physical education”; a second more theory-based phase that continues to the present; and a third descriptive phase (Paton, 1987, p. 26). In most of this research, however, the use of methodological innovation in research and in reporting research has been relatively scarce (as in many of the subdisciplines in physical education/kinesiology). In the present article, I argue for the use of personal narrative and personal storytelling in sport management research methodology, which might result in the asking of different questions and in write-ups that could serve to invigorate sport management studies. This method of research answers different, interactionist-based questions for researchers delving into how sport management affects people and how sport managers interact with others. In other words, this method examines how lives are lived into existence, and it provides models for practitioners and scholars of sport management to model, discover, experience, and use.