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Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard and Christopher J. Nightingale

were converted to BMI data. School officials verified school sports participation. The investigators did not consider participation in sport activities (both organized and recreational) outside of school due to challenges in gathering accurately reported participation levels by school-aged participants

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Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro

empirical research is needed to explore contemporary fantasy sports participation from a dispositional and attitudinal perspective. Theoretical Framework The decision to play DFS (a new activity) as opposed to TFS-only participation or any form of gambling for that matter does not occur in a vacuum. Several

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Melanie S. Hill, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Larry J. Nelson and Alexander C. Jensen

. PubMed ID: 19517025 doi: 10.1007/s10433-009-0110-3 Findlay , L.C. , & Coplan , R.J. ( 2008 ). Come out and play: Shyness in childhood and the benefits of organized sports participation . Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 40 ( 3 ), 153 – 161 . doi: 10.1037/0008-400X.40.3.153 Fiori , K

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Trisha Patel and Neeru Jayanthi

studies suggest that parents’ sports participation, whether through physical activity or team involvement, is a key factor in child sports participation ( Fuemmeler, Anderson, & Masse, 2011 ; Kremarik, 2000 ), and the senior author had previously demonstrated that both specialized young athletes and

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Kathryn R. Glaws, Thomas J. Ellis, Timothy E. Hewett and Stephanie Di Stasi

can range from 52% to 100% at follow-ups of 1 year or longer. 7 , 8 Sports participation appears to decrease 2 to 5 years postoperatively, especially in those with underlying hip osteoarthritis. 4 , 6 , 9 In addition, physical impairments such as limited hip range of motion and abnormal biomechanics

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Amanda Timler, Fleur McIntyre and Beth Hands

benefit from sports participation to a greater extent than females as studies have found that males prefer competitive orientated activities ( Mehta & Strough, 2010 ), experience positive social involvement in organized physical activities which improves resiliency skills ( Zimmerman et al., 2013 ), and

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Aaron Sciascia, Jacob Waldecker and Cale Jacobs

. Conclusions Approximately one in 4 college athletes reported playing injured and/or with pain, but the relationship between pain rating and PCS score was negligible. Knowing that college athletes can experience lower quality of life after college sports participation has ended, it is possible that the

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Xin Fu, Patrick Shu-hang Yung, Chun Cheong Ma and Hio Teng Leong

. Limitations Several limitations that need to be considered in this study are as follows: (1) All the included studies were cross-sectional with small sample size and diverse sports participation. More prospective studies are required to identify the changes in scapular kinematics in athletes of overhead

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Thomas W. Rowland, Richard C. McFaul and David A. Burton

Syncope during sports participation may serve as the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease that poses a risk for athletic training and competition. Other causes of syncope (vasovagal, dehydration) during physical activity may be more benign. The athlete who faints during sports deserves a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation that addresses the wide-ranging differential diagnosis involved. The case of a 14-year-old male with two syncopal spells during athletic training is presented to review the components of such a workup and subsequent management implications.

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Frank M. Howell and James A. McKenzie

There is a significant investment by schools and local communities in the athletic programs offered by secondary schools. A growing issue is, to what extent does the functioning of these sports programs coincide with the formal academic goals of the school? Using a structural equations model, we examine one theme within this major issue by estimating the effect of high school sports participation on sport and leisure activity later in adulthood. Further investigated is the process by which these effects are played out over the transition from adolescence to adulthood, as well as gender differences in the pattern of effects. Using the EEO panel of 1955 high school sophomores reinterviewed in 1970, we find that varsity and nonvarsity sports participation in high school increases adult sports involvement. However, whereas high school sports participation does not retard reading or “high-status” leisure pursuits in adulthood, curriculum track placement during high school does enhance these activities later in life. Track effects were also largely independent of completed school level. Finally, gender variations in the model were present but not uniformly so and largely appear to make sport participation and tracking effects significant only among men.