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Gregory Severino, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michelle Walters-Edwards, Michael Nordvall, Oksana Chernykh, Jason Adames and Alexei Wong

.A. ( 2007 ). The effects of movement velocity during squatting on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in whole-body vibration . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21 ( 2 ), 594 – 598 . PubMed doi: 10.1519/R-20566.1 Guérin , E. , & Fortier , M.S. ( 2012 ). Situational

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

suggestive of alterations in substrate utilization, with a proposed heightened anaerobic energy contribution. This was recently inferred by Cruz et al, 31 who demonstrated that 4 × 5-minute cycles of IPC improved 60-second sprint-cycling performance and led to increased skeletal-muscle activation during

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

.A. , Kashiwaya , Y. , Veech , R.L. , . . . Uyeda , K. ( 2008 ). Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein deletion alters substrate utilization producing an energy-deficient liver . Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283 ( 3 ), 1670 – 1678 . PubMed ID: 18042547 doi:10.1074/jbc.M706540200 10.1074/jbc

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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

substrate utilization in obese boys submitted to a hypocaloric diet . Diabetes Metab . 2005 ; 31 ( 4 Pt 1 ): 327 – 35 . PubMed doi:10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70201-X 10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70201-X 11. Brown RE , Kuk JL , Lee S . Measurement site influences abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose

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Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

parabolic-shaped pacing profile. 8 Finally, for long-duration events (>30 min), athletes often adopt an even pacing profile by selecting a power output or velocity that they are able to maintain through the end of the race, when an altered substrate utilization, neuromuscular fatigue, and/or psychological

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Anne Delextrat, Sinead Mackessy, Luis Arceo-Rendon, Aaron Scanlan, Roger Ramsbottom and Julio Calleja-Gonzalez

-2440(03)80255-4 10.1016/S1440-2440(03)80255-4 Braun , B. , & Horton , T. ( 2001 ). Endocrine regulation of exercise substrate utilization in women compared to men . Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 29 ( 4 ), 149 – 154 . doi:10.1097/00003677-200110000-00003 10.1097/00003677-200110000-00003 Buchheit , M

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

.1007/s00421-012-2447-0 22767151 8. Kalsen A , Hostrup M , Karlsson S , Hemmersbach P , Bangsbo J , Backer V . Effect of inhaled terbutaline on substrate utilization and 300-kcal time trial performance . J Appl Physiol . 2014 ; 117 ( 10 ): 1180 – 1187 . PubMed ID: 25257871 doi:10

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Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan

Acheson , K.J. ( 1988 ). Theory, assumptions and limitations of calculating energy expenditure and substrate utilization from respiratory exchange data . In: Workshop on Methodological Questions on Indirect Calorimetry, 1986 . Austrai, Salzburg . Ainsworth , B.E. , Haskell , W.L. , Whitt , M

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

supplement in a competition setting. Carnitine Carnitine is a compound predominantly found (95%) within the skeletal muscle, playing several important roles in substrate utilization. Carnitine assists in the translocation of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation, as well as

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

, Saris WH , Wagenmakers AJ . The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans . J Physiol . 2001 ; 536 ( 1 ): 295 – 304 . doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00295.x 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00295.x 68. Coyle EF . Substrate utilization during exercise in active people