Many initiatives have been developed to facilitate older adults’ engagement in physical activity (PA) and document its benefits. One example is Texercise, a 12-week program with a focus on increasing participants’ self-efficacy. The goal of this paper is to augment the knowledgebase of PA program implementation and dissemination by elucidating the experience of Texercise implementation as perceived by multiple stakeholders. We conducted 28 semistructured stakeholder interviews and categorized the responses into four preset themes: (1) program delivery and advocacy; (2) value/merit of the program; (3) successes/challenges of offering and sustaining the program; and (4) recommendations for enhancing implementation and delivery. We identified emergent subthemes through further analysis. Many perceptions that are broadly applicable to community organizations emerged. Our findings highlight the importance of stakeholder support when embedding PA programs in communities. Furthermore, the findings are crucial to understanding underlying processes that support widespread program dissemination and sustainability.
Alan B. Stevens, Shannon B. Thiel, Jennifer L. Thorud, Matthew Lee Smith, Doris Howell, Jessica Cargill, Suzanne M. Swierc and Marcia G. Ory
Stephan Dutke, Thomas Jaitner, Timo Berse and Jonathan Barenberg
Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.
Shih-Chun Kao, Chung-Ju Huang and Tsung-Min Hung
The purpose of this study was to determine whether frontal midline theta activity (Fmθ), an indicator of top-down sustained attention, can be used to distinguish an individual’s best and worst golf putting performances during the pre-putt period. Eighteen golfers were recruited and asked to perform 100 putts in a self-paced simulated putting task. We then compared the Fmθ power of each individual’s 15 best and worst putts. The results indicated that theta power in the frontal brain region significantly increased in both best and worst putts, compared with other midline regions. Moreover, the Fmθ power significantly decreased for the best putts compared with the worst putts. These findings suggest that Fmθ is a manifestation of sustained attention during a skilled performance and that optimal attentional engagement, as characterized by a lower Fmθ power, is beneficial for successful skilled performance rather than a higher Fmθ power reflecting excessive attentional control.
Janet A. Donahue, Jacqueline H. Gillis and Karen King
This paper reviews published research on behavior modification in sport and physical education. Following an introduction and some general information concerning operant technology, the actual review covers three areas: (a) behavior modification and coaching/teaching behavior, (b) behavior modification in physical education and sport environments, and (c) behavior modification and skill development. The studies reviewed document the significant value of using reinforcement principles to create or sustain specific coaching, teaching, and participant behaviors germane to sport and physical education.
Kevin R. Heinsimer, Nicolas G. Nelson, Kristin J. Roberts and Lara B. McKenzie
The objective was to describe the patterns and mechanisms of water tubing–related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments.
The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used to examine cases of water tubing–related injuries. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of water tubing–related injuries. Analyses were conducted in 2010.
From 1991−2009 an estimated 69,471 injuries were treated in US emergency departments for water tubing–related injuries. The annual number of cases increased 250% over the 19-year study period (P < .001). Sprains and strains accounted for the largest portion of injuries (27.2%). The head was the most frequently injured body part (27.5%). Children and adolescents ≤ 19 years were more likely to be injured by contact with another person (OR: 2.47; 95% CI = 1.61−3.80) and were more likely to sustain injuries to the head (OR: 2.61; 95% CI = 2.01−3.38) compared with adults. Adults ≥ 20 years, were more likely than individuals ≤ 19 years to sustain sprains and strains (OR: 2.11; 95% CI = 1.64−2.71) and were most commonly injured by impact with the water (54.6%).
Patterns of water tubing–related injuries differ for children and adults. Research is needed to determine how best to reduce these injuries.
Jeffrey Liew, Ping Xiang, Audrea Y. Johnson and Oi-Man Kwok
Schools often include running in their physical education and health curriculum to increase physical activity and reduce childhood overweight. But having students run around may not be enough to sustain physical activity habits if motivational factors are not well understood. This study examined effortful persistence as a predictor of running.
Participants were 246 5th graders, and data on their demographic information, body mass index (BMI), effortful persistence, and time to complete a 1-mile run were collected across 4 years.
Between 5th to 8th grades, effortful persistence predicted time to complete a 1-mile run even when BMI was taken into account at every grade except for 7th grade. Rank-order stability was found in major variables across-time, but no across-time prediction was found for effortful persistence on a 1-mile run.
Lack of longitudinal predictions bodes well for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity, because children or youth with high BMIs or low effortful persistence are not destined for future underachievement on physically challenging activities. Given the stability of variables, interventions that target fostering self-regulatory efficacy or effortful persistence may be particularly important for getting children on trajectories toward healthy and sustained levels of physical activity.
Ellen Yard and Dawn Comstock
There are over 7 million US high school athletes and one-third are overweight or obese. Our objective was to examine injury patterns by body mass index (BMI) in high school athletes.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) at 100 nationally representative US high schools submitted exposure and injury information during the 2005 to 08 school years via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). We retrospectively categorized injured athletes as underweight (≤15th percentile), normal weight (15th−85th percentile), overweight (85th−95th percentile), or obese (≥95th percentile).
ATCs reported 13,881 injuries during 5,627,921 athlete-exposures (2.47 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures). Nearly two-thirds (61.4%) of injured high school athletes were normal weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest among injured football athletes (54.4%). Compared with normal weight athletes, obese athletes sustained a larger proportion of knee injuries (Injury Proportion Ratio [IPR] = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.42) and their injuries were more likely to have resulted from contact with another person (IPR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.37). Compared with normal weight athletes, underweight athletes sustained a larger proportion of fractures (IPR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.92) and a larger proportion of injuries resulting from illegal activity (IPR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.46).
Injury patterns differ by BMI. BMI-targeted preventive interventions should be developed to help decrease sports injury rates.
Marcus A. Badgeley, Natalie M. McIlvain, Ellen E. Yard, Sarah K. Fields and R. Dawn Comstock
With more than 1.1 million high school athletes playing annually during the 2005−06 to 2009−10 academic years, football is the most popular boys’ sport in the United States.
Using an internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers (ATs) from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athletic exposure and football injury data during the 2005−06 to 2009−10 academic years.
Participating ATs reported 10,100 football injuries corresponding to an estimated 2,739,187 football-related injuries nationally. The injury rate was 4.08 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) overall. Offensive lineman collectively (center, offensive guard, offensive tackle) sustained 18.3% of all injuries. Running backs (16.3%) sustained more injuries than any other position followed by linebackers (14.9%) and wide receivers (11.9%). The leading mechanism of injury was player-player contact (64.0%) followed by player-surface contact (13.4%). More specifically, injury occurred most commonly when players were being tackled (24.4%) and tackling (21.8%).
Patterns of football injuries vary by position. Identifying such differences is important to drive development of evidence-based, targeted injury prevention efforts.
Ka-Chun Siu, Shireen S. Rajaram and Carolina Padilla
Increasing evidence underscores the health benefits of Tai Chi (TC), although there is limited evidence of benefits among racial and ethnic minorities. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial status on balance among 23 Latino seniors after a twice-a-week, 12-week TC exercise program. Functional status was measured at baseline, immediately after, and three months following the TC exercise program, using the Timed Up and Go Test and Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Psychosocial status was measured at baseline by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Both measures of functional status improved and were sustained after three months of TC. Greater improvement was significantly related to a higher level of baseline social support. More depressed seniors reported less fear of falling after TC. Depression and social support are important moderators of functional improvement after TC among Latino seniors.
Wendy J. Brown, Kerry Mummery, Elizabeth Eakin and Grant Schofield
To describe the effectiveness of a multi-strategy physical activity (PA) intervention.
Self-report data from random samples were collected prior to and following intervention. Social marketing, healthcare provider, and environmental strategies were concurrently implemented with a central coordinating theme of “10,000 Steps Rockhampton.”
There was evidence of significant project reach and awareness. The downward trend in PA seen in the comparison community (48.3% to 41.9% “active”) was not evident in Rockhampton. Women were the “early adopters” in this project; with an increase of 5% (95% CI: –0.6, 10.6) in the percent categorized as “active” (compared with decreases among women in the comparison community and among men in both communities).
High levels of project awareness, combined with modest increases in activity levels in women, demonstrate initial project effects. Longer term interventions, focusing on sustainable individual, social, and environmental change strategies are needed to maintain and improve this result.