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Matt Brearley, Ian Norton, David Kingsbury and Simon Maas


Anecdotal reports suggest that elite road motorcyclists suffer from high core body temperatures and physiological and perceptual strain when competing in hot conditions.


Four male non-heat-acclimatized elite motorcyclists (3 Superbike, 1 Supersport) had their gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate measured and recorded throughout practice, qualifying, and race sessions of an Australian Superbike and Supersport Championship round contested in tropical conditions. Physiological strain was calculated during the sessions, and fluid-balance measures were taken during practice and qualifying. Rider thermal sensation was assessed immediately postsession.


Mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.5–30.2°C and 64.5–68.7%, respectively, across the sessions. Gastrointestinal temperature rose from 37.6°C to 37.7°C presession at a median rate of 0.035°C, 0.037°C ,and 0.067°C/min during practice, qualifying, and race sessions to reach medians of 38.9°C, 38.8°C, and 39.1°C postsession, respectively. The peak postsession gastrointestinal temperature was 39.8°C. Median heart rates were ~164, 160, and 177 beats/min during the respective practice, qualifying, and race sessions, contributing to median physiological strain of 5.5, 5.6, and 6.2 across the sessions. Sweat rates were 1.01 and 0.90 L/h during practice and qualifying sessions, while rider thermal sensation was very hot after each session.


This investigation confirms that elite road motorcyclists endure moderate to high physiological strain during practice, qualifying, and race sessions, exhibiting more-rapid rates of body-heat storage, higher core body temperatures, and higher physiological and perceptual strain than their stock-car-racing counterparts when competing in tropical conditions.

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John B. Leiper and Ron J. Maughan

Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of 8 competitive swimmers (SW) and 6 age-matched non-training individuals (CON) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7-day study, individuals in the SW group trained 9 times, swimming on average 42.4 km, while the CON group did no regular exercise. Water temperature in the swimming pool was between 26 and 29 °C during training sessions. Body mass at the beginning and end of the study period remained essentially the same in the SW (67.8 ± 6.3 kg) and CON (61.1 ± 8.5 kg) groups. Mean ± SD TBW of the SW (38.7 ± 5.6 L) was similar to that of the CON (37.5 ± 8:0 L). Mean WTR was faster in the SW (54 ± 18 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (28 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1). Mean daily urine output was similar in the SW (14 ± 5 ml · kg · day−1) and CON (14 ± 3 ml · kg · day−1). Calculated non-renal daily water loss was faster in the SW (41 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (13 ± 20 ml · kg · day−1). This study demonstrates that WTR are faster in young swimmers who exercise strenuously in cool water than in non-training individuals and that the difference was due to the approximately 3-times greater non-renal water losses that the exercising group incurred. This suggests that exercise-induced increases in sweat rates are a major factor in water loss in swimmers training in cool water.

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Michael J. Zurawlew, Jessica A. Mee and Neil P. Walsh

sweating rate, a reduction in cardiovascular strain, and improved thermal comfort. 2 – 4 Despite practical limitations, heat acclimation recommendations state that individuals should exercise in the heat on 5 to 14 occasions, maintaining a specific degree of hyperthermia (rectal temperature: T re  ≥ 38

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Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

, 1972 ). The primary factors that influence total sweat loss (L; Sweating Rate × Time) include body size, exercise intensity, exercise duration, the environment, and choice of clothing. These factors explain more than 90% of the widely different sweat losses expected among athletes ( Gagnon et al., 2013

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

of an earlier sweat onset and increase in sweat rate in male athletes, which in turn enhances cooling. 9 , 10 Because of this, long-term heat acclimation has resulted in greater endurance-performance benefits than short-term heat acclimation. 9 Precooling involves lowering body temperature, and

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Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler

nude body mass was recorded once the participant had left the environmental chamber to estimate sweat loss and sweat rate. Heat Acclimation Heat acclimation participants sat in the chamber for 10 minutes to establish baseline values before cycling (Monark 874E; Monark) for 30 minutes in the heat (35°C

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Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo

). It has, however, been established that athletes’ sweat rates increase when they exercise in the heat, possibility increasing overall sodium loss and sweat sodium concentrations ( Holmes et al., 2011 ), which has been observed in football players ( Duffield et al., 2012 ; Maughan et al., 2004 ). Thus

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Joseph A. McQuillan, Julia R. Casadio, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen and Andrew E. Kilding

, after 10-min T re stabilization, and before and after the time trial). Participants then exited the chamber and toweled dry before reweighing nude body mass, with subsequent data used to establish the effect of NO 3 − supplementation on sweat rate. Heart rate was measured using a heart-rate monitor

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Lindsay B. Baker, Kelly A. Barnes, Bridget C. Sopeña, Ryan P. Nuccio, Adam J. Reimel and Corey T. Ungaro

 al., 2004 ). To put these study results in context, a 9 mmol/L difference in sweat [Na + ] (e.g., 40 vs. 49 mmol/L), which is the upper limit expected for 95% of PRESTORAGE versus POSTSTORAGE comparisons, for an athlete with a sweating rate of 1.2 L/hr, would equate to 48.0 versus 58.8 mmol/hr or 1

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Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras

and 34.4 ± 0.5 °C, respectively. Mean sweat loss during the race was 2.24 ± 0.89 L equivalent to a sweat rate of 1.34 ± 0.58 L·h −1 ( Neville et al., 2010 ). The sport also requires high levels of concentration as athletes are required to make rapid tactical decisions. Additionally, athletes remain