This article attempts to provide a conceptual analysis of the term teaching physical education. It discusses the apparent inadequacies and deficiencies about teaching physical education reported in the literature, which have been consistently observed in contacts with teachers and student teachers. Terms such as training and coaching, which are often applied to the physical education teacher, are critically examined and found to be inadequate equivalents of teaching. The concept of teaching physical education connotes an educational goal with processes involving the development of skills and the formation of values, attitudes, and interests in learners. Hence its activities must reflect and be geared toward those ends.
Emilio J. Martínez-López, Nestor Zamora-Aguilera, Alberto Grao-Cruces and Manuel J. De la Torre-Cruz
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Spanish physical education teachers’ perceived self-efficacy toward including overweight and obese students and their attitudes toward overweight and obese students.
Four hundred and seventy-one physical education teachers filled out questionnaires to assess their self-efficacy expectations to meet overweight and obese students’ educational needs, and to identify physical education teachers’ beliefs and attitudes toward these students.
The physical education teachers with a higher perceived self-efficacy in fostering participation and in assessing and promoting overweight and obese students’ learning were more sensitive toward these students’ fitness and healthcare and showed less pejorative attitudes toward overweight and obesity.
These results highlight the need for teaching education programs capable of increasing the physical education teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in this area. The results also show that there is a need for training for teachers and students in strategies aimed at reducing the cases of victimization of overweight and obese students.
Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig and Paul M. Wright
and sport pedagogy, Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR; Hellison, 2011 ) is a well-established model for promoting such objectives ( Kirk, 2013 ; Metzler, 2011 ; Parker & Stiehl, 2010 ). TPSR has been widely applied in after-school programs, summer camps, and physical education
Dean Dudley, Victoria Goodyear and David Baxter
The United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) recognizes quality physical education (QPE) must, along with physical, social and affective educative goals, seek to improve the health status of youth (UNESCO, 2015). Health-Optimizing Physical Education (HOPE) is a model of physical education (PE) that seeks this goal but is creating much debate in the discipline (Sallis et al., 2012).
The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual assessment framework for QPE and HOPE on which future assessment protocols may be based that serve both health and educative goals.
Policy and literature pertaining to QPE and HOPE were reviewed and compared for similarities and differences. This was followed by an analysis of literature on assessment in the health and education disciplines. These analyses provided the authors with the insight to propose a new model of assessment for HOPE models to implement QPE.
Many similarities exist in the policy of QPE and the published literature on HOPE. However, the measurement model of assessment can often circumvent two important assessment functions for education settings that need to be addressed in a wider QPE and Models-Based Practice (MBP) context. Conclusions: HOPE models were established using an interventionist mindset and are therefore well suited to integrating well-defined MBP pedagogies as appropriate ‘intervening’ strategies by using a clinical approach to teaching and assessment. To date, they have lacked an assessment framework that has been capable of addressing both the health and educative goals that both HOPE and MBP seek to achieve. This paper provides new insight by reimagining the role MBPs and assessment practices have to play in the health and education nexus.
Terry L. Rizzo and Walter P. Vispoel
This study examined the relationship between selected attributes of physical educators (N=94) and their attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded, behaviorally disordered, and learning disabled. Data were collected through the administration of the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching the Handicapped–II (PEATH–II) instrument. A forward stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that, of the eight selected teacher variables assessed, physical educators’ perceived competence in teaching students with handicaps was the best predictor of attitudes. A repeated-measures ANOVA and subsequent post hoc comparison tests indicated that learning disabled students were viewed more favorably than educable mentally retarded and behaviorally disordered students.
get students to complete readings and discuss their learning, through peer teaching while formulating responses to teachers’ questions, and in formative assessments. Every lecture could begin with one or more questions and end with a series of questions raised or left unanswered ( Brookfield
Phillip Conatser, Martin Block and Monica Lepore
The purpose was to examine attitudes of aquatic instructors (female, n = 59; male, n = 23) toward teaching swimming to students with mild to severe disabilities in an inclusive setting. Aquatic instructors from 28 states representing 75 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. Data were collected by mail with a modified version of Rizzo’s (1984) “Attitudes of Physical Educators Toward Teaching Handicapped Pupils” (renamed “Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities - Swim”). A correlated t test showed that aquatic instructors were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to students with mild disabilities than students with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that conducting an inclusive aquatic program was the best predictor of favorable attitudes toward including students with mild disabilities, while having more certifications in aquatics was the best predictor of favorable attitudes toward including students with severe disabilities in regular aquatic programs.
Michalis Stylianou, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Donetta Cothran and Ja Youn Kwon
This study was informed by the literature on teaching metaphors and the theory of occupational socialization. Its purpose was to examine in-service Physical Education teachers’ initial (before entering the profession), current, and ideal metaphors of teaching, related factors, and potential differences in participants’ metaphors based on their teaching experience. A mixed-methods approach was employed for this study, including a modified version of an existing survey (N = 66; Alger, 2009) and interviews (N = 13). Descriptive statistics indicated that while participants predominantly embraced teacher-centered metaphors initially, about half of them reported their current and ideal metaphors as student-centered. Constant comparison and analytic induction techniques revealed three themes and several subthemes: (a) fluidity (own definitions, combination of metaphors), (b) formation of initial views of teaching (acculturation, professional socialization), and (c) evolutionary forces and constraints (experience, pressure of test scores, time allocation, resources). These results have implications both for preservice and in-service teacher education programs.
Donetta J. Cothran and Pamela Hodges Kulinna
It was the purpose of this study to examine students’ perspectives on three teaching strategies. Seventy middle school students were interviewed, and they rank ordered the strategies. A constant comparison process guided the interview data analysis, while the rank order data were analyzed via descriptive statistics and a Friedman Analysis of Variance by Ranks. Two key concepts that influenced students’ perspectives on the effectiveness of the teaching strategies were their conceptions of the affective dimensions of each strategy and their knowledge beliefs.
John R. Todorovich
Social constructivists posit that learning involves social interactions among individuals in a given place and time. Since teachers play a significant role in how social interactions are developed and determined in the school classroom, it is important to learn how teachers make decisions about their teaching behaviors and interactions with their students. Because extreme ego orientations have been shown to have a mediating effect on performance behavior in achievement settings, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mediating effect of an extreme ego orientation on preservice teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education. Data collection consisted of two formal interviews, several informal interviews, and observations of the participants’ teaching. Five themes reflecting the teaching perspectives held by the participants emerged from the data: (a) teachers must maintain control and manage their classes, (b) the best students should be singled out, (c) physical education is an isolated subject area, (c) physical education and athletics are inherently linked, and (d) because only the best can do physical education well, teachers must grade on effort. Findings demonstrate how extreme ego orientations were actualized in preservice teachers’ perspectives of teaching.