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Khalid Ballouli

Will Big League Baseball Survive? Globalization, the End of Television, Youth Sports, and the Future of Major League Baseball , author Lincoln A. Mitchell provides a compelling discussion of how Major League Baseball arrived at its current popularity and how the game of baseball might not last long as

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Takemi Sugiyama, Dafna Merom, Marina Reeves, Eva Leslie and Neville Owen

Background:

Television viewing time is associated with obesity risk independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). However, it is unknown whether the relationship of TV viewing time with body mass index (BMI) is moderated by other domains of physical activity.

Methods:

A mail survey collected height; weight; TV viewing time; physical activity for transportation (habitual transport behavior; past week walking and bicycling), for recreation (LTPA), and in workplace; and sociodemographic variables in Adelaide, Australia. General linear models examined whether physical activity domains moderate the association between BMI and TV viewing time.

Results:

Analysis of the sample (N = 1408) found that TV time, habitual transport, and LTPA were independently associated with participant’s BMI. The interaction between TV time and habitual transport with BMI was significant, while that between TV time and LTPA was not. Subgroup analyses found that adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher for the high TV viewing category, compared with the low category, among participants who were inactive and occasionally active in transport, but not among those who were regularly active.

Conclusions:

Habitual active transport appeared to moderate the relationship between TV viewing time and BMI. Obesity risk associated with prolonged TV viewing may be mitigated by regular active transport.

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Thomas Horky

In most countries, live broadcasts of sports events generate enormous numbers of viewers and reach impressive market shares. In this article, the author examines the structures of major football (soccer) broadcasts on German television and makes conclusions on the quality of sports journalism. A longitudinal analysis is made of the broadcasts of the last 9 German matches in World and European Cup championships of the past 16 years on German television. A closer look at different parts reveals an increasing loss of meaning for live coverage, as well as rising preliminary and postreporting within the broadcasts. A finer cross-section examination of the football finals in 2006 and 2010 shows a lack of journalistic programming in the live broadcasts, with an increasing loss of meaning for sports journalism

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Marquis Hawkins, Anne B. Newman, Magdalena Madero, Kushang V. Patel, Michael G. Shlipak, Jennifer Cooper, Kirsten L. Johansen, Sankar D. Navaneethan, Ronald I. Shorr, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Linda F Fried

Background:

Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults.

Methods:

The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report, and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function.

Results:

Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.52) compared with individuals who watched television <2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome.

Conclusions:

High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study.

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Susan B. Sisson, Stephanie T. Broyles, Birgitta L. Baker and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The purposes were 1) to determine if different leisure-time sedentary behaviors (LTSB), such as TV/video/video game viewing/playing (TV), reading for pleasure (reading), and nonschool computer usage, were associated with childhood overweight status, and 2) to assess the social-ecological correlates of LTSB.

Methods:

The analytic sample was 33,117 (16,952 boys and 16,165 girls) participants from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. The cut-point for excessive TV and nonschool computer usage was ≥ 2 hr/day. High quantities of daily reading for pleasure were classified as ≥ 31 min/day. Weighted descriptive characteristics were calculated on the sample (means ± SE or frequency). Logistic regression models were used to determine if the LTSB were associated with overweight status and to examine social-ecological correlates.

Results:

Over 35% of the sample was overweight. Odds of being overweight were higher in the 2 to 3 hr/day (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.76) and ≥ 4 hr/day (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.91) daily TV groups compared with none. Reading and nonschool computer usage was not associated with being overweight.

Conclusions:

TV was associated with overweight classification; however, nonschool computer usage and reading were not. Several individual, family, and community correlates were associated with high volumes of daily TV viewing.

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Jim Dollman and Kate Ridley

Background:

Evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of children meet guidelines for sufficient physical activity, but also exceed TV guidelines. Health-related consequences of this combination are unknown.

Methods:

843 children, (age 10-11 y), were surveyed for health-related fitness [endurance performance (20 m MST), skinfolds, waist girth], daily TV and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Children were grouped using daily TV (≤ 120 min) and MVPA (≥ 60 min) guidelines: hiTV-hiMVPA/“technoactives”’; hiTV-loMVPA/“screenies”; and loTV-hiMVPA/“sporties.” Groups were compared on health-related fitness measures.

Results:

There was a trend (P = 0.07) towards higher girls’ skinfolds among “screenies” than “sporties.” Boys’ waist girths were higher among “technoactives” than “sporties” (P = 0.008). Male “technoactives” outperformed “screenies” on the 20 m MST (P = 0.03). Female “sporties” (P = 0.004) and “technoactives” (P = 0.0002) outperformed “screenies” on the 20 m MST.

Conclusions:

“Technoactives” were no different than “sporties” on endurance fitness but exhibited less favorable fat distribution among boys. Overall, “screenies” exhibited the least favorable health profiles.

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Patricia F. Coogan, Laura F. White, Stephen R. Evans, Julie R. Palmer and Lynn Rosenberg

Background:

Influences on TV viewing time, which is associated with adverse health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes, need clarification. We assessed the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability with TV viewing time in the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective study of African American women.

Methods:

We created neighborhood SES and walkability scores using data from the U.S. census and other sources. We estimated odds ratios for TV viewing 5+ hours/day compared with 0–1 hours/day for quintiles of neighborhood SES and walkability scores.

Results:

Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with TV viewing time. The odds ratio for watching 5+ hours/day in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of neighborhood SES was 0.66 (95% CI 0.54–0.81). Neighborhood walkability was not associated with TV viewing time.

Conclusions:

Neighborhood SES should be considered in devising strategies to combat the high levels of sedentariness prevalent in African American women.

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Clare Hume, Anna Timperio, Jenny Veitch, Jo Salmon, David Crawford and Kylie Ball

Background:

This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

Methods:

Participants were 155 adolescents (14.4 years ± 0.61) in 2004 (40% boys). Data collection occurred in 2004 and again in 2006. At both time points, participants completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), from which they were classified as having depressive symptoms (≥15) or not (<15). Organized sport and TV viewing were self-reported and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured. Logistic and linear regression analyses examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, TV viewing, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression.

Results:

There were no cross-sectional or longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression among boys or girls. However, having symptoms of depression in 2004 did predict higher TV viewing among adolescent girls in 2006 (approximately 168 minutes/week more TV viewing; P ≤ .001).

Conclusions:

MVPA, VPA, organized sport and objectively-measured sedentary time appeared unrelated to depressive symptoms in this sample, but depressive symptoms predicted increased TV viewing over time among adolescent girls. Further research is required to determine the clinical relevance of this finding.

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Susan B. Sisson and Stephanie T. Broyles

Background:

The primary and secondary purposes were to examine social-ecological correlates of excessive TV viewing (>2hr/day) in American children 1) between race/ethnic groups and 2) between boys and girls.

Methods:

Children (n = 48,505) aged 6 to 18 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health were included. Social-ecological correlates included individual-, family-, and community-level variables. Logistic regression analyses were used for race/ethnicity [Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, other] and sex groups (boys, girls), to determine associated correlates.

Results:

By race/ethnicity, 16.6%, 37.8%, and 24.5% of NHW, NHB, and Hispanic exceeded recommendations. For boys and girls, 23.7% and 18.2% viewed excessive TV. Having a TV in the bedroom and higher poverty level were associated with excessive TV in all groups. Differences by race/ethnicity were age, sex, TV in the bedroom, extracurricular activities, physical activity, adequate sleep, family structure, family meals, knowing child’s friends, parent/ child communication, and neighborhood characteristics. Differences by sex were family structure, parent/ child communication, family meals, and neighborhood elements.

Conclusion:

Social-ecological correlates and associated prevalence of excessive TV viewing differed across subgroups. These specific correlates can be targeted in tailored interventions.

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Jorge Mota, José Ribeiro, Maria Paula Santos and Helena Gomes

This study aimed to examine the relationship between obesity status (body mass index: BMI) and physical and sedentary activities in adolescents. The sample comprised 230 girls and 220 boys (14.6 years old, SD = 1.6). Physical Activity (PA) was assessed by a questionnaire. Sedentary behaviors, such as TV viewing, computer use, and commuting to and from school were analyzed. Participants were categorized as nonobese or overweight/obese according to age-adapted BMI. No significant differences were found in relation to PA characteristics or in TV watching on weekdays vs. weekends. Nonobese participants spent significantly less time using computers on weekends (p = .04) and weekdays (p = .025) than their overweight/obese counterparts. Logistic regression analysis showed that those who used computers on weekdays more than 4 hrs per day were likely (odds ratio: 5.79; p < .003) to be overweight or obese. This study identified a relationship between computer use, but not physical activity or TV viewing, and weight status among Portuguese adolescents.