As accountability and the nature of higher education are changing to an emphasis on teaching, it is critical for faculty to have pedagogical training to develop their classroom skills. Currently, most doctoral programs do not require pedagogical courses therefore faculty must independently seek knowledge on how to engage students and to teach the specifics of sport management. This article discusses the foundations of constructivist learning and some specific teaching strategies relevant for a sport management classroom. Drawing on educational and psychological theory, a six-element framework is outlined where instructors attempt to reach long-term learning, not just a memorization of facts. The overall framework and each element are discussed and then strategies such as the Fishbowl, Active Opinion, Talking in Circles, and group selection options are introduced. The benefit of this approach to the classroom is that it is not topic specific, and can be implemented in a variety of sport management classrooms.
Anastasios Kaburakis, Linda A. Sharp and David A. Pierce
Case law discussions in sport management scholarship and pedagogy frequently focus exclusively on one primary topic area. Thus, a case serves as a textbook example of a specific legal theory and management practice points. Occasionally, a multi-faceted case allows for an elaborate, comprehensive analysis, integrating teaching concepts from several areas of the law. Such is the factual scenario of O’Brien v. Ohio State University. This teaching case study offers lessons in Contract Law, NCAA Compliance, and International Arbitration. The complex web of these three intersections of sport law, policy, and management provides students and scholars the opportunity to both delve deeper into concepts and learn crucial details in a broader context. Key facets of each portion instrumentally affected the other portions of the case, triggering chain reactions. Teaching this case contributes to students’ appreciation of these intertwining concepts, and creates overall awareness of potentially far-reaching ramifications for each action.
Athena Yiamouyiannis, Heather J. Lawrence, Mary A. Hums and B. David Ridpath
Intercollegiate athletics administrators face many difficult and complex issues throughout the course of their careers related to balancing athletics budgets, remaining competitive in select sports and complying with Title IX. To better prepare future athletics administrators to handle these challenges, the authors provide background information on the complexities of the issue, discuss use of the Responsible Decision Making Model for Athletics (RDMMA) as a tool to assist in the process, and demonstrate the use of this model as applied to intercollegiate athletics. The RDMMA provides a framework from which to organize information, ensure all constituencies are considered, save time in decision making, and evaluate intended and unintended consequences of decisions. Professors can use the RDMMA as a tool in the classroom to bridge the gap between academic theory and practical application of these concepts to help guide future athletics administrators on how to approach complex issues and responsibilities.
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.
Kimberly A. Bush, Michael B. Edwards, Gareth J. Jones, Jessica L. Hook and Michael L. Armstrong
Recently, scholars of sport management have called for more research aimed at understanding how sport can be leveraged for social change. This interest has contributed to a burgeoning paradigm of sport management research and practice developed around using sport as a catalyst for broader human and community development. In order for sport practitioners to successfully develop, implement, and sustain these programs, integration of development-based theory and concepts are needed in sport management curricula. Service learning is one pedagogical approach for achieving this objective, and is well suited for promoting social change practices among students. This study assesses how participation in a sport-for-development (SFD) service learning project impacted the social consciousness and critical perspectives of sport management students. Results suggest the experience raised student’s awareness of community issues, developed a more holistic perspective on the role of service, and influenced their future careers.
Joshua R. Pate and David J. Shonk
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of sport management students during an experiential learning trip to Super Bowl XLVII in New Orleans, LA. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore and describe why students were motivated to participate in the trip. The study draws from theories of student and volunteer motivation. A qualitative approach was employed using ethnography that detailed the accounts of 11 students and 2 professors from James Madison University who volunteered to work events surrounding the Super Bowl. The findings revealed three themes: learning, career empowerment, and on-site preparation. This type of experiential trip can be replicated by other sport management educators and the findings can assist in further developing the literature on experiential learning.
Simon R. Walters, Julia Hallas, Sean Phelps and Erika Ikeda
Even though technology has become a key driver in preparing sports management students for an increasingly globalized industry, it is unclear whether the affordances of these technologies contribute to the transformation of the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a learner-generated video assessment develops students’ critical thinking and engagement with the theoretical concepts taught in an undergraduate second-year Sociology of Sport course. Data were gathered using a qualitative case study approach. Students found the video assessment enjoyable; it promoted critical thinking and engagement with theory. However, students were less interested in technology-based assessment than the need for courses to align learning strategies and assessment methods to the graduate capabilities required to transform their discipline in the workplace. We argue that it is this alignment that will lead to a transformation in the learning environment and quality student engagement, rather than the video technology itself.
Marijke Taks and Laura Misener
In this case, a local sport tourism officer has been asked to prepare a recommendation for Evex City Council regarding which types of events the city should bid for, based on their public policy agenda of enhancing tourism for economic development purposes and stimulating sport participation for residents. A questionnaire, a codebook, and a data set from two events, an international figure skating event and a provincial gymnastics event, are provided to assist in making a decision. The data set includes the spectators’ identification with and motives for attending the events, tourism activities in which they participated, and some sociodemographic variables. Analyses of the data and interpretation of the results should assist the sport tourism officer in providing accurate recommendations to policymakers. Theories and frameworks that underpin this case include public policy schemas; identity, motives, and tourism behavior of event attendees; sport participation outcomes from sport events; leveraging; and event portfolios.
Joanne Williams and Heidi M. Parker
Experiential learning has been widely used to impact student engagement and provide opportunities to apply theory to practice (Bower, 2013). Sport management faculty regularly use experiential learning in event management, sales classes and internships (Charlton, 2007; McKelvey & Southall, 2008). In addition, educators often include leadership development within their student learning outcomes (COSMA, 2014; MacKie, 2014). This study examines the effectiveness of leadership development activities implemented in an experiential event management course. A case study approach was selected to demonstrate in-depth development and analysis of the course and the integration of strengths-based leadership activities. Students completed the StrengthFinder assessment (Rath & Conchie, 2009), the Strengths Awareness Measure (Schreiner, 2004), and the Strengths of Self Efficacy Scale (Tsai et al., 2014). Significant increases in strengths awareness were reported along with generally high self-efficacy scores. Students reported positive perceptions of the experiential learning experience and increased levels of engagement.
Sport management as an academic discipline requires a balance of theory and practice through endowing students with knowledge, critical thinking skills, and expertise (Cuneen & Parks, 1997). Professionals call for students being “prepared” for the demands of the sport industry through the acquisition of a quality education and a significant amount of hands-on experience before entering the work force. Researchers have recommended utilizing experiential pedagogical strategies to not only provide the hands-on engagement but also to challenge students to use their knowledge for the public good (e.g., Bruening, Madsen, Evanovich, & Fuller, 2010; Chalip, 2006; McKelvey & Southall, 2008; Pauline & Pauline, 2008). It also supports the recent trend to educate students in the world beyond the confines of the college campus. Boyer (1996) noted engaging outside the confines of campus will not only give students hands on experience but also, cultivate a student’s cognitive and moral development, which is often underestimated in higher education.