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Riley C. Sheehan and Jinger S. Gottschall

Falls are the leading cause of injury for all age groups. However, adults over 65 are at a higher risk, with one-third falling each year. Transitioning between level and hill surfaces poses a greater fall risk than walking on either surface alone. Previous studies found that young adults adopted a cautious gait pattern to mitigate this risk. As older adults typically employ a cautious pattern during level walking, we investigated how they modify their gait pattern to safely transition between surfaces. Twenty adults over the age of 65 transitioned onto and off of a 15° ramp while we recorded kinematics and muscle activity. During the level-to-downhill and uphill-to-level transitions, participants took slower, shorter steps indicative of an exaggerated cautious gait pattern. The older adults also exhibited greater muscle activity during the transitions, which may be due to muscle weakness requiring compensatory strategies to meet the greater demands of the task. However, the slower, shorter steps when transitioning from uphill to level suggest that these compensations may not always be adequate. Thus, it is important to consider the relationship between physical abilities and task demands in evaluating walking terrains that may be excessively difficult or dangerous for older adults.

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Riley C. Sheehan and Jinger S. Gottschall

Individuals must constantly modify their gait patterns to safely transition between different surfaces. The goal of the current study was to determine if gait changes could be detected two steps from a transition, and whether these changes scaled with the angle of the hill. We hypothesized that during the anticipation of uphill walking and the aftereffect of downhill walking, the magnitude of kinetic and electromyography changes would be greatest at steep hill angles and fewer steps from the transition. We collected force and electromy-ography data as participants walked on the level ground before an uphill ramp and after a downhill ramp. As hypothesized, there were significant main effects for both the number of steps and angle of the hill for the first vertical GRF peak, as well as lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity. Overall, our results indicate that when transitioning to and from hills, anticipation and aftereffect responses occur at least two steps from the transition and are scaled to the angle of the hill.

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Colm Hickey and Martin Roderick

In contrast to research, which privileges the notion of an exclusive athletic identity, we argue that the identity management of professional athletes is influenced by the expectations of audiences and the motivational weight of ‘possible selves’ in explaining career transitions from ‘sports work’. Qualitative vignette interviews were conducted with 10 male participants (ages 18–26 years) on three separate occasions (30 interviews). All interviewees had experienced a career transition from Premier League football in the UK. By integrating Goffman’s (1971) dramaturgical analogy and Markus and Nurius’s (1986) concept of possible selves we illustrate the way athletes manage their identities to explain how understandings of career transitions are linked to social audiences and whether they dramatically realize and legitimize future possible selves.

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Adam Love, Seung-Yup Lim and Joy T. DeSensi

The presence of transitioned women in sport is currently a contested issue. Mianne Bagger, a transitioned woman, has been an important figure in developments related to this issue during her efforts to play on various women’s professional golf tours. Using a standpoint perspective, which begins with the assumption that some social locations, such as those of marginalized individuals, are better starting points than others for seeking knowledge, the researchers interviewed Bagger about her experiences. Since she has begun seeking the right to play on various women’s professional tours, a number of golfing organizations have introduced or created “gender policies” regarding who is allowed to participate. While such policy developments may seem on the surface to be progressive measures designed

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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers

Background:

The purpose of this study was to identify longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) and to analyze its association with gender and weight status during the transition from elementary to secondary school.

Methods:

Flemish children were recruited in 6th grade of elementary school (age = 10.97 ± 0.41) and reassessed 2 years later (age = 12.96 ± .40). Children completed a questionnaire on moderate-to-vigorous PA and SB and wore pedometers to monitor habitual PA. Longitudinal data from 472 children were analyzed.

Results:

A significant decrease was observed in self-reported moderate to vigorous PA (-12.2%), but not in pedometer-determined PA. With respect to SB, a pronounced increase in recreational computer use was found (+3.22 hours/week), particularly in overweight boys (+8.18 hours/week). Finally, a significant increase in time spent on homework was observed in girls (+3.57 hours/week) and normal weight children (+2.83 hours/week).

Conclusions:

No longitudinal change in pedometer-determined PA was observed. Nevertheless, the decline in self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA suggests that the transition to secondary school induced a change in the contribution of different types of PA. Finally, time spent on homework and recreational computer use increased during the school transition.

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Alan Hreljac, Rodney T. Imamura, Rafael F. Escamilla, W. Brent Edwards and Toran MacLeod

The primary purpose of this project was to examine whether lower extremity joint kinetic factors are related to the walk–run gait transition during human locomotion. Following determination of the preferred transition speed (PTS), each of the 16 subjects walked down a 25-m runway, and over a floor-mounted force platform at five speeds (70, 80, 90, 100, and 110% of the PTS), and ran over the force platform at three speeds (80, 100, and 120% of the PTS) while being videotaped (240 Hz) from the right sagittal plane. Two-dimensional kinematic data were synchronized with ground reaction force data (960 Hz). After smoothing, ankle and knee joint moments and powers were calculated using standard inverse dynamics calculations. The maximum dorsiflexor moment was the only variable tested that increased as walking speed increased and then decreased when gait changed to a run at the PTS, meeting the criteria set to indicate that this variable influences the walk–run gait transition during human locomotion. This supports previous research suggesting that an important factor in changing gaits at the PTS is the prevention of undue stress in the dorsiflexor muscles.

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Toran D. MacLeod, Alan Hreljac and Rodney Imamura

This study was conducted to investigate whether adding mass to subjects’ feet affects the preferred transition speed (PTS), and to ascertain whether selected swing phase variables (maximum ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity, angular acceleration, joint moment, and joint power) are determinants of the PTS, based upon four previously established criteria. After the PTS of 24 healthy active male subjects was found, using an incremental protocol in loaded (2 kg mass added to each shoe) and unloaded (shoes only) conditions, subjects walked at three speeds (60%, 80%, and 100% of PTS) and ran at one speed (100% of PTS) on a motor-driven treadmill while relevant data were collected. The PTS of the unloaded condition (2.03 ± 0.12 m/s) was significantly greater (P < .05) than the PTS of the loaded condition (1.94 ± 0.13 m/s). Within both load conditions, all dependent variables increased significantly with walking speed, decreased significantly when gait changed to a run, and were assumed to provide the necessary input to signal a gait transition, fulfilling the requirements of the first three criteria, but only ankle angular velocity reached a critical level before the transition, satisfying all four criteria to be considered a determinant of the PTS.

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Alba Pardo, Anna Mitjans, Lucía Baranda, Manel Salamero, James McKenna, Antoni Arteman and Mariona Violán

Background:

Little is known about lifestyle choices and preventive healthcare-seeking behaviors during the transition from medical school graduation to residency training, a period characterized by increased rates of stress and lack of free time due to demanding working conditions. All of these issues are likely to affect physical activity (PA) level. This study explored the evolution of PA and other lifestyle behaviors during this transition.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study and a cohort study were conducted with medical students (2010) and physicians before and after the first year of residency (2013 and 2014). A self-administered questionnaire assessed PA, health and lifestyle behaviors.

Results:

From a sample of 420 medical students and 478 residents, 74% comply with current PA guidelines. PA decreased by 16% during residency. Low levels of PA were found among (i) females and in respondents who reported (ii) poor self-perceived health and (iii) unhealthy body weight (P < .05). Low PA level was also significantly associated with poor mental health in first-year residents.

Conclusions:

The transition has a negative effect on physicians’ PA level that may affect physicians’ own health and patient care. Medical programs should encourage residents to engage in PA to assure physicians’ personal and mental health.

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Natalie Colabianchi, Jamie L. Griffin, Kerry L. McIver, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Background:

Numerous studies have focused on the role of environments in promoting physical activity, but few studies have examined the specific locations where children are active and whether being active in these locations is associated with physical activity levels over time.

Methods:

Self-reported locations of where physical activity occurred and physical activity measured via accelerometry were obtained for a cohort of 520 children in 5th and 6th grades. Latent class analysis was used to generate classes of children defined by the variety of locations where they were active (ie, home, school grounds, gyms, recreational centers, parks or playgrounds, neighborhood, and church). Latent transition analyses were used to characterize how these latent classes change over time and to determine whether the latent transitions were associated with changes in physical activity levels.

Results:

Two latent classes were identified at baseline with the majority of children in the class labeled as ‘limited variety.’ Most children maintained their latent status over time. Physical activity levels declined for all groups, but significantly less so for children who maintained their membership in the ‘greater variety’ latent status.

Conclusions:

Supporting and encouraging physical activity in a variety of locations may improve physical activity levels in children.

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Patricia L. Krebs and Martin E. Block

The mission of education is to prepare all students with and without disabilities for adult life in the community. Recent amendments to Public Law 94-142 now require transition services, which promote movement from school to postschool activities, for all students with disabilities to begin as early as age 14 and to be included in the student’s IEP. Most special education programs provide vocational, domestic, and community independent living skills training. However, the same cannot be said for lifelong sport and fitness training. A life-skills model for teaching sport and fitness skills that are chronologically age appropriate, functional, and community based is preferred to the traditional developmental approach for teaching adapted physical education. The life-skills model for teaching adapted physical education changes the setting–from school sport facilities to community sport and recreation facilities–in which adapted physical education classes are conducted. It also expands the role of the adapted physical educator from direct service provider to include transition team member, consultant to regular physical education and community sport and recreation agencies, trainer of support personnel, and environmental analyst.