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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

to understand the ingredients and sources used in supplement formulations. In addition, the environmental component encompasses the desire/ability to change and barriers to change ( Boosalis, 2010 ), which may be assessed most readily using the transtheoretical model of health behavior change (Table

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Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

For half a century, investigations aimed at explaining, predicting, and changing sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise have relied on a small set of theories, including social cognitive theory (e.g.,  Bandura, 2004 ), the transtheoretical model (e.g.,  Prochaska & Marcus, 1994 ), the

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Iris Buder, Cathleen Zick, Norman Waitzman, Sara Simonsen, Grant Sunada and Kathleen Digre

The “IMPART” model incorporates numerous health behavior change theories including the health belief model, 30 the theory of planned behavior, 31 attribution theory, 32 expectancy-valence, 33 self-efficacy, 34 the trans-theoretical model, 30 and the diffusion of innovation model. 35 This unique

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Laura A. Dwyer, Minal Patel, Linda C. Nebeling and April Y. Oh

relationships among constructs in the health belief model and the transtheoretical model among African-American college women for physical activity . Am J Health Promot . 2004 ; 18 ( 5 ): 354 – 357 . PubMed doi:10.4278/0890-1171-18.5.354 10.4278/0890-1171-18.5.354 15163135 43. Teixeira PJ , Carraca EV

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl

). Researchers have applied several existing theoretical frameworks to PA promotion for people living with disabilities. These include the theory of planned behavior, the trans-theoretical model, self-determination theory, social cognitive theory, and ecological models. The theory of planned behavior attempts to

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Joseph J. Murphy, Ciaran MacDonncha, Marie H. Murphy, Niamh Murphy, Alan M. Nevill and Catherine B. Woods

. Does knowledge of physical activity recommendations increase physical activity among Chinese college students? Empirical investigations based on the transtheoretical model . J Sport Health Sci . 2018 ; 7 ( 1 ): 77 – 82 . doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.010 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.010 30356484

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Kazuhiro Harada, Sangyoon Lee, Sungchul Lee, Seongryu Bae, Yuya Anan, Kenji Harada and Hiroyuki Shimada

might be effective to promote physical activity among older adults. The Expectation-Value Theory ( Atkinson, 1957 ), Social Cognitive Theory ( Bandura, 1986 ), Theory of Planned Behavior ( Ajzen, 1991 ), Trans-theoretical Model ( Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983 ), and Protection Motivation Theory ( Rogers

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David A. Ferrer and Rebecca Ellis

) or the transtheoretical model (TTM) than those that did not. Prestwich et al 8 meta-analytically reviewed 190 physical activity and healthy eating interventions and also reported that interventions based on SCT or TTM were equally effective, but no more effective than nontheory-based interventions

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch and Manuel Waldorf

from existing English-language instruments ( Hildebrandt, Langenbucher, Lai, Loeb, & Hollander, 2011 ) and studies on APED use ( Bell, Dorsch, McCreary, & Hovey, 2004 ). The SAPEDI is based on health-psychological stage models of behavior change, such as the Transtheoretical Model of Change (e

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Emma V. Richardson, Sarah Blaylock, Elizabeth Barstow, Matthew Fifolt and Robert W. Motl

was done to reflect the transtheoretical model and the various stages of exercise adherence which are highlighted therein. Participants, however, did not perceive this to be reflective of their journey to exercise adherence. This is an interesting and important finding with regard to exercise