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Zachary C. Pope, Nan Zeng, Xianxiong Li, Wenfeng Liu and Zan Gao

were collected via indirect calorimetry with a Cortex Metalyzer II metabolic cart (Cortex; Germany). Briefly, the exercise tests were performed on a Pulsar treadmill (H/P/Cosmos; Willich, Germany), with participants wearing a mask attached to the metabolic cart. The metabolic cart conducted indirect

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Alyssa Evans, Gavin Q. Collins, Parker G. Rosquist, Noelle J. Tuttle, Steven J. Morrin, James B. Tracy, A. Jake Merrell, William F. Christensen, David T. Fullwood, Anton E. Bowden and Matthew K. Seeley

expenditure during the present study. The four sensors were embedded under the insole at the heel, arch, ball, and toe positions. (b) A depiction of the instrumented treadmill and general experimental setup. Methods Subjects Thirty adults participated in this study. To be included, each subject was required

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David Alexander Leaf and Holden MacRae

The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion-related validity of two indirect measures of energy expenditure (EE): American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) predictive equations, and estimated EE based on the Caltrac accelerometer. These measures were compared in 20 community-dwelling older men and women (mean age 71 years). The strength of the relationships among major determinants of EE during self-selected speeds of treadmill and outdoor walking was also examined. EE measured by respiratory gas analysis during an exercise stress test was highly correlated with ACSM predictive equations and poorly correlated with Caltrac. Multivariate regression equations were established to evaluate the ability of independent variables—body weight and height, age, and preferred treadmill walking speed—to predict EE (dependent variable). It was concluded that the ACSM predictive equations are suitable for use in elderly individuals, and that the apparent differences in the relationships between treadmill and outdoor walking speeds on EE deserve further investigation.

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Claire Peel, Carolyn Utsey and Jan MacGregor

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an 8-week supervised exercise program on physiological measurements during treadmill walking, muscle strength, functional performance, and health status in older adults limited in physical function. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, N = 13) or a control group (CG, N = 11), and were evaluated before and after the exercise program (EG) or 8-week period (CG). Evaluations included a progressive treadmill lest, strength testing, the Physical Performance Test (PPT), and the SF-36 Health Survey. The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions per week of brisk walking and strengthening exercises. The EG demonstrated increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and increases in treadmill walking time. The EG also demonstrated increases in force production in 3 of the 6 muscle groups that were tested. Both the EG and CG demonstrated improvements in PPT scores and in 2 health concepts on the SF-36 Health Survey.

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Blanche Evans, David Hopkins and Tracey Toney

The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic stress of a self-paced half-mile walk test incorporated in the AAHPERD functional fitness assessment for older adults. Forty-three subjects, aged 57 to 75, completed a half-mile walk on an indoor track (IT) and during a treadmill simulation (TS) of the track walk. Treadmill data indicated that subjects exercised at a mean VO2 of 14.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1 and mean heart rate (b · min−1) of 129. A significant difference (p ≤ .05) was found between IT and TS on rating of perceived exertion. Results indicate that older subjects selected a pace that stressed their cardiorespiratory system without producing severe fatigue or medical complications. Therefore, the half-mile walk test appears to be a safe test that may be incorporated in functional fitness testing. However, its ability to determine functional capacity needs further study.

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Richard A. Boileau, Edward McAuley, Demetra Demetriou, Naveen K. Devabhaktuni, Gregory L. Dykstra, Jeffery Katula, Jane Nelson, Angelo Pascale, Melissa Pena and Heidi-Mai Talbot

A trial was conducted to examine the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training (AET) on cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. Previously sedentary participants, age 60-75 years, were randomly assigned to either AET treatment or a control group for 6 months. The AET consisted of walking for 40 min three times/week at an intensity that elevated heart rate to 65% of maximum heart rate reserve. The control group performed a supervised stretching program for 40 min three times/week. CR fitness was assessed before and after the treatments during a grade-incremented treadmill walking test. Both absolute and relative peak V̇O2 significantly increased (p < .01) in the AET group, whereas they decreased modestly in the control group. Maximum treadmill time increased significantly (p < .01) in the AET group relative to the control group. These results indicate that CR fitness as measured by peak V̇O2 modestly improves in the elderly with a moderate-intensity, relatively long-term aerobic exercise program.

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Walter J. Rejeski and Paul M. Ribisl

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anticipated task duration on ratings of perceived exertion during treadmill running. Male subjects.(N = 15) completed two separate runs on a motor-driven treadmill at 85% V02 max. During one trial, subjects ran for a period of 20 minutes, while for a second trial, subjects were led to believe that they would be running for 30 minutes. In each case, the trials were terminated at the 20-minute mark. Ratings of perceived exertion, heart rates, respiratory rates, and ventilatory minute volumes were collected across each trial. Results supported the supposition that the anticipation of continued performance mediated ratings of effort expenditure. This effect was obtained only during moderate work levels and was in contrast to research examining mental fatigue.

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Joanne Kraenzle Schneider and Kenneth H. Pitetti

The purpose of this study was to compare measured V˙O2, at specific stages with the American College of Sports Medicine-predicted V˙O2, at the same stage during treadmill walking in older women. Twenty-five women (age range = 56.6 to 78.1 years; mean ± SD = 66.6 ± 5.8 years) walked on a treadmill at a speed of 2.0 mph and 0% grade for the first stage and at increased grades for each subsequent stage. The results showed considerable lack of agreement between the measured and predicted V˙O2, values. Predicted V˙O2, was lower than measured V˙O2, at 0% grade and higher than measured V˙O2, al 10.2% grade (p < .05 for both). However, predicted V˙O2, was not significantly different from measured V˙O2, at grades of 3.4% and 6.7%. These results are generalizable only to older women who can walk 2.0 mph on a treadmill and do not use handrail support. Future research is needed to develop more accurate equations for predicting V˙O2, for older women.

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Mallory R. Marshall and James M. Pivarnik


Maternal physical activity declines across gestation, possibly due to changing perception of physical activity intensity. Our purpose was to a) determine whether rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during a treadmill exercise changes at a given energy expenditure, and b) identify the influence of prepregnancy physical activity behavior on this relationship.


Fifty-one subjects were classified as either exercisers (N = 26) or sedentary (N = 25). Participants visited our laboratory at 20 and 32 weeks gestation and at 12 weeks postpartum. At each visit, women performed 5 minutes of moderate and vigorous treadmill exercise; speed was self-selected. Heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), and RPE were measured during the last minute at each treadmill intensity.


At moderate intensity, postpartum VO2 was higher compared with 20- or 32-week VO2, but there was no difference for HR or RPE. For vigorous intensity, postpartum HR and VO2 were higher than at 32 weeks, but RPE was not different at any time points.


RPE does not differ by pregnancy time point at either moderate or vigorous intensity. However, relative to energy cost, physical activity was perceived to be more difficult at 32 weeks compared with other time points. Pregnant women, then, may compensate for physiological changes during gestation by decreasing walking/running speeds.

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Carmelo Bazzano, Lee N. Cunningham, Giovanni Cama and Tony Falconio

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between selected physiological variables and lactate accumulation at the end of a l-mile walk test (MWT) in older women (mean ± SD: 64.6 ± 3.1 years). Seventeen women with a V˙O2peak (ml · kg-1 · min-1) of 21.1 ± 4.2 volunteered to participate. Physiological data were obtained via a COSMED K2 miniaturized O2 analyzer with telemetric capabilities during a maximal treadmill (TM) test and MWT. Blood samples were obtained from the ear lobe for lactale analysis immediately before and after the treadmill test and MWT. Subjects performed the MWT in 15.4 ± 1.4 min at an intensity of 76% of V˙O2 peak and 86% of HRmax. The blood lactate accumulated at the end of the MWT was 2.61 ± 1.47 mmol/L. Peak lactate following the maximal treadmill test was 3.8 ± 1.42 mmol/L. HR during the test was significantly related with blood lactate (r= .65, p< .01). The lactate values observed during the lest suggest that the I-mile walk test is a suitable field testing procedure for older women.