This study compared submaximal and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max) in children ages 3–4 and 5–6 years. Methods appropriate for this age group were developed to elicit maximal performance on the exercise tests. Subjects (N = 22) performed progressive treadmill walking tests. The criteria used to determine whether V̇O2 max was reached were a plateauing of oxygen uptake, HR > 195, and an R > 1.00. The V̇O2 max for the 3- and 4-year-olds (44.5 ml•kg−1•min−1) was not significantly different from that of the 5- and 6-year-olds (44.1 ml•kg−1•min−1). At submaximal levels, 5- and 6-year-olds had significantly lower relative oxygen uptake, indicating better economy in walking. A large proportion of children met testing criteria for V̇O2 max. Test-retest results indicated that the tests were reliable.
Kathleen M. Shuleva, Gary R. Hunter, Donna J. Hester and Donna L. Dunaway
Lawrence E. Armstrong, Roger W. Hubbard, E. Wayne Askew, Jane P. De Luca, Catherine O'Brien, Angela Pasqualicchio and Ralph P. Francesconi
This investigation examined whether low sodium (Na+) (LNA; 68 mEq Na+·d-1) or moderate Na+ (MNA; 137 mEq Na+.d-1) intake allowed humans to maintain health, exercise, and physiologic function during 10 days of prolonged exercise-heat acclimation (HA). Seventeen volunteers, ages 19 to 21, consumed either LNA (n=8) or MNA (n=9) during HA (41°C, 21% RH; treadmill walking for 30 min.h-1, 8 h·d-1 at 5.6 kmh-l, 5% grade), which resulted in significantly reduced heart rate, rectal temperature, and urine Na+ for both groups. There were few between-diet differences in any variables measured. Mean plasma volume in LNA expanded significantly less than in MNA by Days 11 and 15, but reached the MNA level on Day 17 (+12.3 vs. +12.4%). The absence of heat illness, the presence of normal physiologic responses, and the total distance walked indicated successful and similar HA with both levels of dietary Na+.
Michael L. Mestek, John C. Garner, Eric P. Plaisance, James Kyle Taylor, Sofiya Alhassan and Peter W. Grandjean
The purpose of this study was to compare blood lipid responses to continuous versus accumulated exercise. Nine participants completed the following conditions on separate occasions by treadmill walking/jogging at 70% of VO2max : 1) one 500-kcal session and 2) three 167 kcal sessions. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) concentrations were measured from serum samples obtained 24 h prior to and 24 and 48 h after exercise. All blood lipid responses were analyzed in 2 (condition) × 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs. HDL-C increased by 7 mg/dL over baseline at 48 h post-exercise with three accumulated sessions versus 2 mg/dL with continuous exercise (P < 0.05). Triglyceride concentrations were unchanged in both conditions. These findings suggest that three smaller bouts accumulated on the same day may have a modestly greater effect for achieving transient increases in HDL-C compared to a continuous bout of similar caloric expenditure.
Richard R. Rosenkranz, Sara K. Rosenkranz and Casey Weber
This study sought to assess criterion validity of the Actical monitor step-count function in children via ankle and waist placement, compared with observed video recordings. Children attending a summer program (12 boys, 7 girls, mean age = 9.6yrs, range 7–11yrs) wore two synchronized Acticals, attached at the ankle (AA) and waist (AW). Children performed treadmill walking at varying speeds, and two research assistants counted steps using observed video recordings (OVR). Results showed high correlations for AW-OVR (r = .927, p < .001) and AA-OVR (r = .854, p < .001), but AW and AA were significantly lower than OVR (t > 11.2, p < .001). AW provided better step estimates than AA for step rates above 130 steps per minute. In contrast, AA was superior to AW for slow walking, and measured more steps during the (nontreadmill) program time. Overall, the Actical monitor showed good evidence of validity as a measure of steps in children for population-based studies.
Phillip D. Tomporowski and Larry D. Jameson
Institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults participated in two exercise programs. One group of 19 subjects performed a circuit-training regimen consisting of treadmill walking, stationary bicycle riding, rowing, and calisthenics. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and were performed every third day during an 18-week training period. A second group of 19 subjects participated in an 18-week jogging regimen which consisted of running distances of 1/2, 1, or 1 1/2 miles each session. The exercise requirements in both programs were increased progressively during the course of training. Subjects adapted quickly to both exercise regimens and almost all improved their physical endurance and ability to exercise. It is suggested that the highly motivating characteristics of exercise may provide educators with a training medium through which new skills can be taught to severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults.
David Alexander Leaf and Holden MacRae
The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion-related validity of two indirect measures of energy expenditure (EE): American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) predictive equations, and estimated EE based on the Caltrac accelerometer. These measures were compared in 20 community-dwelling older men and women (mean age 71 years). The strength of the relationships among major determinants of EE during self-selected speeds of treadmill and outdoor walking was also examined. EE measured by respiratory gas analysis during an exercise stress test was highly correlated with ACSM predictive equations and poorly correlated with Caltrac. Multivariate regression equations were established to evaluate the ability of independent variables—body weight and height, age, and preferred treadmill walking speed—to predict EE (dependent variable). It was concluded that the ACSM predictive equations are suitable for use in elderly individuals, and that the apparent differences in the relationships between treadmill and outdoor walking speeds on EE deserve further investigation.
Philip D. Tomporowski, Catherine L. Davis, Kate Lambourne, Mathew Gregoski and Joseph Tkacz
The short-term aftereffects of a bout of moderate aerobic exercise were hypothesized to facilitate children’s executive functioning as measured by a visual task-switching test. Sixty-nine children (mean age = 9.2 years) who were overweight and inactive performed a category-decision task before and immediately following a 23-min bout of treadmill walking and, on another session, before and following a nonexercise period. The acute bout of physical activity did not influence the children’s global switch cost scores or error rates. Age-related differences in global switch cost scores, but not error scores, were obtained. These results, in concert with several studies conducted with adults, fail to confirm that single bouts of moderately intense physical activity influence mental processes involved in task switching.
Richard A. Boileau, Edward McAuley, Demetra Demetriou, Naveen K. Devabhaktuni, Gregory L. Dykstra, Jeffery Katula, Jane Nelson, Angelo Pascale, Melissa Pena and Heidi-Mai Talbot
A trial was conducted to examine the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training (AET) on cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. Previously sedentary participants, age 60-75 years, were randomly assigned to either AET treatment or a control group for 6 months. The AET consisted of walking for 40 min three times/week at an intensity that elevated heart rate to 65% of maximum heart rate reserve. The control group performed a supervised stretching program for 40 min three times/week. CR fitness was assessed before and after the treatments during a grade-incremented treadmill walking test. Both absolute and relative peak V̇O2 significantly increased (p < .01) in the AET group, whereas they decreased modestly in the control group. Maximum treadmill time increased significantly (p < .01) in the AET group relative to the control group. These results indicate that CR fitness as measured by peak V̇O2 modestly improves in the elderly with a moderate-intensity, relatively long-term aerobic exercise program.
Charity B. Breneman, Christopher E. Kline, Delia West, Xuemei Sui and Xuewen Wang
This study investigated the acute effect of exercise on sleep outcomes among healthy older women by comparing days with structured exercise versus days without structured exercise during 4 months of exercise training. Participants (n = 51) in this study had wrist-worn actigraphic sleep data available following at least 3 days with structured exercise and 3 days without structured exercise at mid-intervention and at the end of intervention. The exercise intervention was treadmill walking. Multilevel models were used to examine whether structured exercise impacted sleep outcomes during the corresponding night. Overall, 1,362 nights of data were included in the analyses. In unadjusted and adjusted models, bedtimes were significantly earlier on evenings following an acute bout of structured exercise than on evenings without structured exercise. No other sleep parameters differed between exercise and nonexercise days. Understanding the effects of exercise on sleep in this understudied population may help to improve their overall sleep quality.
Melissa N. Galea, Steven R. Bray and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis
This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with walking for exercise among people who experience intermittent claudication. Fifteen individuals (7 men and 8 women) participated in 3 focus groups that were tape-recorded and content analyzed. A social-cognitive framework was used to categorize barriers and facilitators as those related to the person, to the activity, or to the environment. Variables identified included those specific to intermittent claudication and those common among the general population. Barriers to walking included irregular or graded walking surfaces, uncertainty about the outcome of walking, ambiguity regarding pain, the need to take rest breaks, and the presence of leg pain. Facilitating factors included availability of a resting place, use of cognitive coping strategies, companionship support, and availability of a treadmill-walking program. Findings are interpreted in light of current research on exercise determinants and encourage prospective examinations of the predictive validity of these factors for walking.