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Joanne MacLean, Laura Cousens and Martha Barnes

The Canadian Sport Policy advocates for increased interaction among sport organizations as a means to create a more efficient and effective system. The purpose of this study was to explore the existence and nature of linkages among a network of community basketball providers. Network theory focuses on the interconnections of organizations by considering the structural, social, and economic bonds of cooperative behavior. Quantitative data were collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using network software UCINET 6 to assess the numbers and types of linkages among a network of community basketball organizations (n = 10) in one geographical region. Next, in-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with leaders from the organizations and from their provincial/national governing bodies (n = 11) to assess the barriers to linkages among these organizations. Results indicated a loosely coupled network, wherein issues of power and dependence, uncertainty, and the lack of managerial structures to initiate and manage linkages prevailed.

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Margaret K.Y. Mak, Oron Levin, Joseph Mizrahi and Christina W.Y. Hui-Chan

Calculation of joint torques during the rising phase of sit-to-stand motion is in most cases indeterminate, due to the unknown thighs/chair reaction forces in addition to the other sources of uncertainties such as joint positioning and anthropometric data. In the present study we tested the reliability of computation of the joint torques from a five-segment model; we used force plate data of thighs/chair and feet/ground reaction forces, in addition to kinematic measurements. While solving for joint torques before and after seat-off, differences between model solutions and measured data were calculated and minimized using an iterative algorithm for the reestimation of joint positioning and anthropometric properties. The above method was demonstrated for a group of six normal elderly persons.

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Tatiana Andreyeva and Roland Sturm

Background:

Physical activity has clear health benefits but there remains uncertainty about how it affects health care costs.

Objective:

To examine how physical activity is associated with changes in health expenditure for a national sample age 54 to 69 y, and estimate how this association varies across people with different chronic diseases and health behaviors.

Methods:

Data were from the Health and Retirement Study, a national longitudinal survey of late middle age Americans.

Results:

Correcting for baseline differences in active and inactive groups, physical activity was associated with reduced health care costs of about 7% over 2 y (or $483 annually).

Conclusions:

Regular physical activity in late middle age may lower health expenditure over time, and the effect is likely to be more pronounced for the obese, smokers, and individuals with some baseline health problems. While substantially large for the health care system, our estimates are much smaller than health-unadjusted comparisons or cross-sectional effects.

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Melissa N. Galea, Steven R. Bray and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with walking for exercise among people who experience intermittent claudication. Fifteen individuals (7 men and 8 women) participated in 3 focus groups that were tape-recorded and content analyzed. A social-cognitive framework was used to categorize barriers and facilitators as those related to the person, to the activity, or to the environment. Variables identified included those specific to intermittent claudication and those common among the general population. Barriers to walking included irregular or graded walking surfaces, uncertainty about the outcome of walking, ambiguity regarding pain, the need to take rest breaks, and the presence of leg pain. Facilitating factors included availability of a resting place, use of cognitive coping strategies, companionship support, and availability of a treadmill-walking program. Findings are interpreted in light of current research on exercise determinants and encourage prospective examinations of the predictive validity of these factors for walking.

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Matthew D. Bird and Brandonn S. Harris

Sport psychology professionals have increasingly utilized technology for providing performance enhancement and clinical services. Some uncertainty exists amongst professionals to the ethical nature of providing services using technology. The purpose of this study was to survey Certified Consultants of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) on the frequency and perceived ethicality of their technology use for providing performance enhancement and clinical services. A secondary purpose was to investigate differences in perceived ethicality between consultants with professional licensure compared to unlicensed professionals. Results suggest overall technology use for service delivery by consultants is low. Technologies used to provide clinical services displayed significantly lower ethical ratings compared to their use for performance enhancement purposes. Differences between licensed consultants and those who are unlicensed emerged for the ethical perceptions of providing performance enhancement services via email, cell phone, and videoconferencing, as well as for clinical services provided via cell phone.

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Qiwei Huang and Ryan M. Brewer

This case examines dilemmas evolving in China’s premier soccer league, the Chinese Super League. A plan is suggested for confronting the league’s challenges, with recommendations that focus on creating a harmonious and competitive league. Challenges arise from the political and economic transformation currently taking place in China, affecting league operations. While the league stands at a precipice of change on the eve of the Beijing Olympic Games, its viability as a going concern is uncertain. Part of the uncertainty derives from an unregulated system of league policies that have been poorly communicated and unenforced, resulting in discord. Development of league regulations and communication protocols remains largely government driven and would be best if consistent with the local culture, but commercial issues of league operations are also important. Enhancing the effectiveness and consistency of culture-sensitive communication protocols—especially between the government, media, and league officials—will increase participation from league stakeholders.

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Fiona J. Moola, Moss E. Norman, LeAnne Petherick and Shaelyn Strachan

While interdisciplinary knowledge is critical to moving beyond categorical ways of knowing, this comes with its own set of pedagogical challenges. We contend that acknowledging existing knowledge hierarchies and epistemological differences, recognizing the ideological baggage that students’ bring to the classroom in terms of their understandings of health, embracing intellectual uncertainty, and encouraging learning-as-witnessing, are fundamental to fostering an interdisciplinary pedagogy that opens up a space for dialogue between psychology and sociology. We draw on the case of obesity and physical inactivity in the Canadian context as an exemplar of a kinesiology dilemma in which both psychology and sociology have important, albeit different, roles to play. We suggest that the anxiety provoked by such an approach is not only necessary but productive to forge an intellectual space where psychologists and sociologists may better hear one another.

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Patricia Nascimento de Sousa, Marina Brito Silva, Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini and Luis Augusto Teixeira

The effect of resistance strength training on different phases of reactive postural responses to upright-stance perturbation was assessed in elderly women. Perturbation to body balance was produced by fast arm movements aiming at lifting different loads in either certain or uncertain contexts. Results from center-of-pressure analysis showed that lifting a light load under uncertainty led to more body sway than under certainty. Resistance strength training led to short periods of body sway in the compensation phase and to decreased variability in the stabilization phase of postural responses. These results suggest that neuromuscular adaptation from resistance strength training benefits late phases of postural responses to perturbation of body balance in the elderly.

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David R. Collins, Hyeongsaeng Park and Michael T. Turvey

Von Holst (1939/1973) parsed intersegmental coordination into relative and absolute to distinguish moderate and extreme forms. Kelso and DeGuzman (1992) discussed an interpretation of relative coordination in terms of the chaotic phenomenon of intermittency. The data of concern (DeGuzman & Kelso, 1991) do not, however, exclude a stochastic interpretation, which is detailed here following earlier suggestions. The key difference is modeling relative coordination by stochastic variability about weak attractors rather than by deterministic variability about remnants of attractors (”ghost attractors”). The intermittency interpretation is not robust in the presence of noise and, therefore, is not well disposed to account for uncertainty in detailing a model of behavioral data or its parameters. In contrast, the stochastic interpretation is based upon an approximation of unknown underlying processes in the form of Gaussian white noise. A stochastic method for estimating model parameters from a stationary probability distribution and a mean first passage time is illustrated using experimental and simulated data.

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Stefan Kesenne

This article uses economic theory to examine the variables that affect the competitive balance in a professional sports league and the impact of revenue sharing. The generally accepted proposition that revenue sharing does not affect the competitive balance in a profi t-maximizing league has been challenged by many. It is shown that the competitive balance and the impact of revenue sharing not only depend on the relative size of the market of the clubs, but that they are also affected by the objectives of the club owners and the importance to spectators of absolute team quality and uncertainty of outcome. Furthermore, the clubs’ hiring strategies, including the talent supply conditions, turn out to be important elements affecting competitive balance and the impact of revenue sharing.