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M. Ann Hall

and large these athletes have not been taken seriously by cycling historians, and are often dismissed as the “kind of low-class show-business chicanery that amateur organizations sought to purge from sport.” 42 Therefore, were these women athletes competing in sport, or were their efforts strictly

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Natalie M. Welch and Robin Hardin

). Narratives of young women athletes’ experiences of emotional pain and self-compassion . Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 6 , 499 – 516 . doi:10.1080/2159676X.2014.888587 10.1080/2159676X.2014.888587 Swim , J.K. & Cohen , L.L. ( 1997 ). Overt, covert, and subtle sexism: A

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Gregory A. Cranmer, Maria Brann and Nicholas D. Bowman

Previous studies have suggested that media reify frames that subtly enforce sex differences in a manner that detracts from women athletes’ athleticism. This phenomenon is referred to as ambivalence. To analyze ambivalence, this study introduces a theoretically and empirically supported coding scheme that was used to conduct a quantitative frame analysis of 157 images featured in ESPN’s The Body Issue. These images were coded for frames that de-emphasize athleticism, sexualize athletes, or deny a sporting context. Results suggest that athlete sex is associated with de-emphasized athleticism and sexualized frames, and sport gender is associated with context frames. Results also support longitudinal trends in The Body Issue series, which suggest that the series has become more sexualized and removed from a sports context but has decreased the use of frames that de-emphasize athleticism. In general, The Body Issue continues to reinforce established media trends that trivialize female athletes, despite claiming to do the opposite.

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Adam Cohen, E. Nicole Melton and Jon Welty Peachey

The genuine sport of quidditch, based off the Harry Potter franchise, offers an alternative to traditional sport that has grown immensely in terms of popularity and participation. Due to the scarcity of research on coed sports, and the innovative nature of quidditch, the purpose of this research was to use an exploratory qualitative approach to examine impact of the sport on its participants, and to determine how its structure influenced participants’ attitudes toward the opposite gender. Findings revealed the coed structure of the sport led to a positive coed experience for women and men, which in turn developed an increased desire for inclusivity and equality. In addition, both genders reported stereotype reduction due to participation in the sport, and women also reported feeling increased levels of self-confidence and pride. Despite these shifts in attitude, underlying prejudice toward women athletes was still apparent among men who participated in the sport.

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Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne

examining female athletes represented in online and social media is an emerging area of inquiry. Recent studies have investigated women’s self-representations in social media spaces (see Toffoletti & Thorpe, 2018 ; Reichart Smith & Sanderson, 2015 ), representations of women athletes during major events

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Jessica Love and Lindsey Conlin Maxwell

perpetuate hegemonic masculinity through sexist and stereotypical rhetoric, male sport writers challenged the structure with positive coverage. Even when women occupy higher positions as editors and content managers, women athletes are not framed more positively (see Pedersen, Whisenant, & Schneider, 2003

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Thelma S. Horn

socialization on female physical activity: Rethink pink . Physical Educator, 72 , 20 – 43 . Norman , L. , & French , J. ( 2013 ). Understanding how high-performance women athletes experience the coach–athlete relationship . International Journal of Coaching Science, 7 , 3 – 24 . Occhino , J

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Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham

/us/2011/04/25/enhancedespnw-web-site-for-female-athletes-and-fans-debuts-april-26/ Mathesen , H. , & Flatten , K. ( 1996 ). Newspaper representation of women athletes in 1984 and 1994 . Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 5 ( 2 ), 65 – 83 . doi:10.1123/wspaj.5.2.65 10.1123/wspaj.5

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Colin J. Lewis, Simon J. Roberts, Hazel Andrews and Rebecca Sawiuk

.1080/02701367.2003.10609067 Fasting , K. , Brackenridge , C. , & Walseth , K. ( 2007 ). Women athletes’ personal responses to sexual harassment in sport . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19, 419 – 433 . doi:10.1080/10413200701599165 10.1080/10413200701599165 Fasting , K. , & Sand , T.S. ( 2015 ). Narratives of

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Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

, how sport institutions attempt to address and incorporate LGBQT concerns in sport, cultural sensitive issues such as mascot names and dress (can women athletes wear hijabs or not), or the appropriate use of social media. Future research could look at how institutional actors work to address issues