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Barbara E. Ainsworth and Cheryl Der Ananian

There is a growing recognition of the need for the primary prevention of chronic illnesses across the lifespan. In recent years, diseases that were formerly associated with adulthood such as diabetes are being diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. While there have been many prevention efforts focusing on health in children and adolescents, there is a limited body of research examining prevention in young adults. This article examines the concept of wellness in the Millennial generation and describes how their life course experiences impact seven domains of wellness. Specifically, this article describes the period and cohort effects that influence the domains of wellness and how the Millennial generation differs from other generations in these aspects of wellness. Finally, this paper provides an overview of the technological and cultural influences on wellness in the Millennial generation.

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Sergej M. Ostojic

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute creatine-monohydrate supplementation on soccer-specific performance in young soccer players. Twenty young male soccer players (16.6 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study and were matched and allocated to 2 randomly assigned trials: ingesting creatine-monohydrate supplement (3 × 10-g doses) or placebo for 7 days. Before and after the supplementation protocol, each subject underwent a series of soccer-specific skill tests: dribble test, sprint-power test, endurance test, and vertical jump test. Specific dribble test times improved significantly in the creatine group (13.0 ± 1.5 vs. 10.2 ± 1.8 s; p < .05) after supplementation protocol. Sprint-power test times were significantly improved after creatine-monohydrate supplementation (2.7 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 0.5 s; p < .05) as well as vertical jump height (49.2 ± 5.9 vs. 55.1 ± 6.3 cm; p < .05) in creatine trial. Furthermore, dribble and power test times, along with vertical jump height, were superior in creatine versus placebo trial (p < .05) at post-supplementation performance. There were no changes in specific endurance test results within or between trials (p > .05). There were no between-trial differences in the placebo trial (p > .05). The main finding of the present study indicates that supplementation with creatine in young soccer players improved soccer-specific skill performance compared with ingestion of placebo.

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Michael Wälchli, Jan Ruffieux,, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller and Wolfgang Taube

Balance training (BT) can improve postural control. This has recently been confirmed in systematic reviews for older adults ( 21 ) and healthy young adults ( 20 ). In addition, there are several studies demonstrating that BT interventions lead to improved postural control in children

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Gabriel Andrade Paz, Marianna de Freitas Maia, Haroldo Gualter Santana, Humberto Miranda, Vicente Lima and John D. Willson

higher level of lower-limb injuries in young and professional athletes. 2 , 4 , 5 The cause of noncontact traumatic and overuse volleyball injuries is multifactorial. 6 Lower-limb biomechanics during activity have been widely postulated as an important factor in the etiology of both traumatic and

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Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson, Dona J. Housh, Jeffrey R. Stout, Joseph P. Weir, Loree L. Weir and Joan M. Eckerson

The purpose of the present study was to examine age-related changes in isokinetic leg flexion and extension peak torque (PT), PT/body weight (PT/BW), and PT/fat-free weight (PT/FFW) in young wrestlers. Male wrestlers (N = 108; age M ± SD = 11.3 ± 1.5 years) volunteered to be measured for peak torque at 30, 180, and 300° · s−1. In addition, underwater weighing was performed to determine body composition characteristics. The sample was divided into six age groups (8.1−8.9, n = 10; 9.0−9.9, n= 11; 10.0−10.9, n = 25; 11.0−11.9, n = 22; 12.0−12.9, n = 28; 13.0−13.9, n = 12), and repeated measures ANOVAs with Tukey post hoc comparisons showed increases across age for PT, PT/BW, and PT/FFW. The results of this study indicated that there were age-related increases in peak torque that could not be accounted for by changes in BW or FFW. It is possible that either an increase in muscle mass per unit of FFW, neural maturation, or both, contributes to the increase in strength across age in young male athletes.

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Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Argyris Toubekis, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, João Paulo Loures, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos and Marcelo Papoti

during the efforts. Uncontrolled pacing and differences in metabolic responses because of drafting commonly occur during the training of low-experience young swimmers. The use of continuous tethered swimming efforts during training requires the determination of the anaerobic threshold, which represents

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Cesar Gallo-Salazar, Juan Del Coso, David Sanz-Rivas and Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez

0.7 m·s −1 , 8 with peak velocities reaching up to 5.6 m·s −1 . 11 Recent studies have shown that running activities significantly differ depending on age 8 (eg, young vs adult tennis players) and on final match outcome 3 , 7 , 8 (eg, winners vs losers). However, these based

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Peter Leinen, Thomas Muehlbauer and Stefan Panzer

remained elusive ( Ricotti & Ravaschio, 2011 ). For example, Hoffman, Schrader, Applegate, and Koceja ( 1998 ) investigated differences in unilateral postural stability between the dominant and non-dominant leg of healthy young adults. Their data indicated no differences in postural stability between the

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Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan

. For these reasons, recent focus has been placed on the validity of estimating activity intensities in children ( Chinapaw et al., 2010 ; De Vries et al., 2009 ; Lubans et al., 2011 ), older adults ( Garatachea et al., 2010 ), and, to a lesser extent, young adults ( Watson et al., 2014 ). Young

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Jacqueline R. Berning, John P. Troup, Peter J. VanHandel, Jack Daniels and Nancy Daniels

Dietary food records from adolescent male and female swimmers participating in a national developmental training camp were analyzed for nutrient density. The mean caloric intake was 5,221.6 kcal for males and 3,572.6 kcal for females. The distribution of calories between carbohydrates, protein, and fat was not ideal for athletes trying to optimize performance. These young swimmers consumed too much fat and not enough carbohydrate. They consumed more than the RDA of vitamins A and C, and thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin; however, some concern is expressed for females who did not meet the RDA for calcium and iron. This study shows that although a group of adolescent swimmers may be consuming enough nutrients, individual swimmers may have very poor dietary habits and thus may not be providing adequate fuel or nutrients for optimal training or performance.