Chia-Yuan Yu, Ayoung Woo, Christopher Hawkins and Sara Iman
in obesity were found to correspond to differences in race/ethnicity; the lowest percentage of obesity is among Asian adults (11.7%), followed by Whites (34.5%), Hispanics (42.5%), and non-Hispanic African Americans (48.1%). 1 One of the potential factors of racial/ethnic variations in obesity is
Deborah B. Horn, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with physical activity (PA) in women during the first year following high school.
Females from 22 high schools (n = 915) completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in 12th grade and reported if they were sports participants. After graduation, 305 women (18.9 ± 0.6 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. They reported time spent per day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) for the previous week. Multiple logistic regression was used to predict postgraduate PA.
The odds of being in the high-active group were greater in women who were sports participants (OR = 1.93) in 12th grade. The odds of being in the high-active group were greater among white women (OR = 2.09) and greater among currently employed women compared with unemployed women (OR = 5.57). MVPA had borderline significance in the regression model.
Sports participation and being currently employed predicted physical activity at postgraduation.
Jennie A. Phillips and Deborah Rohm Young
This study examined associations between sports participation, physical activity, fitness level, and body mass index in ninth-grade girls.
Data were analyzed for 221 participants who completed sports participation and physical activity recall questionnaires, an aerobic step test, and height and weight measurement.
On average, participants had low physical activity levels, and many were overweight or obese (47%). About half participated in at least one organized sport in the previous year. Sports participants had higher current estimated energy expenditure compared with non-sports participants (P = .0007). Those who participated on at least two teams were more likely to complete the three-stage step test without reaching their target heart rate than those who did not participate on any teams (P < .03). Past sports participation was positively associated with current physical activity and fitness levels.
Urban adolescent girls who participate in sports have increased energy expenditure and higher fitness levels, indicating sports as a potential strategy to improve physical activity and health in this population.
Kenneth Sean Chaplin and Jeffrey Montez de Oca
Over the past two seasons, African-American NFL players have protested against state violence in communities of color. Race-based protest movements in US sport are not new. They have taken many forms and functions, and have encompassed a broad range of actors/actresses who share similar visions and
Chelsea L. Kracht, Elizabeth K. Webster and Amanda E. Staiano
. Those who did not provide complete data had a lower income and were predominantly African American compared with the included sample. As shown in Table 1 , on average children were 3 years of age (57.9%), white (57.0%), and were above the poverty level (73.9%). Most children met the PA (91.5%) and
Gary A. Sailes
This investigation examined the beliefs of college students regarding specific stereotypes about African American athletes and about college student-athletes. Beliefs about intelligence, academic integrity, and academic competitiveness among male college student-athletes, as well as assumptions about intelligence, academic preparation, style of play, competitiveness, physical superiority, athletic ability, and mental temperament in African American athletes, were investigated. A fixed alternative questionnaire was administered to 869 graduate and undergraduate students. The findings indicate that white and male students believe that athletes are not as intelligent as the typical college student and that they take easy courses to maintain their eligibility and that African American athletes are not academically prepared to attend college, are not as intelligent and do not receive as high grades as white athletes, and are generally temperamental. African American and female students believe that African American athletes are more competitive and have a different playing style than white athletes.
Jennifer D. Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray and Brian E. Saelens
had statistically significant higher rates of AT (27.7%) compared with non-Hispanic African Americans (15.5%), Asian Americans (13.4%), and whites (9.4%). 21 The difference between non-Hispanic African Americans and whites was also statistically significant. 21 Associations between income and AT are
This study investigates whether African American student-athletes receive encouragement to participate in sport from the black community (e.g., parents) or from other socializing agents (e.g., teachers, coaches, and friends). A questionnaire was administered to 23 teams in two summer basketball leagues in Washington, D.C., during the summer of 1985. The findings indicate that African American student-athletes are more likely to perceive social support for playing basketball from coaches and friends and especially teachers, who provide encouragement for African Americans to participate in sport, but not from parents. Moreover, support for playing basketball is associated with professional sport aspirations for black, but not white, males.
Gregory W. Heath and John Bilderback
a projected 2010 population of 3959 residents in census tract 19, I 90% (n = 3560) of whom are of African American heritage. II Thirty one percent (n = 1224) of these residents are under the age of 18 years. III This area of Chattanooga is represented by over 1581 occupied households of which 68