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Simon McEnnis

This article presents a study that examined what citizen journalism on Twitter has meant for the professional identity and working practices of British sport journalists, using data from a series of in-depth, semistructured interviews. Sport journalists recognized the need to strive for higher professional standards to ensure that their output is of greater cultural significance than that of citizen journalists. Trust—achieved through the ideologies of truth, reliability, and insight—was seen as essential to achieving this distinction. The democratization of breaking news has meant that red-top tabloid and 24-hr rolling news environments must reinvent themselves by making greater use of other journalistic practices including investigative reporting.

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Evan L. Frederick, Choong Hoon Lim, Galen Clavio and Patrick Walsh

An Internet-based survey was posted on the Twitter feeds and Facebook pages of 1 predominantly social and 1 predominantly parasocial athlete to ascertain the similarities and differences between their follower sets in terms of parasocial interaction development and follower motivations. Analysis of the data revealed a sense of heightened interpersonal closeness based on the interaction style of the athlete. While followers of the social athlete were driven by interpersonal constructs, followers of the parasocial athlete relied more on media conventions in their interaction patterns. To understand follower motivations, exploratory factor analyses were conducted for both follower sets. For followers of the social athlete, most of the interactivity, information-gathering, personality, and entertainment items loaded together. Unlike followers of the social athlete, fanship and community items loaded alongside information-gathering items for followers of the parasocial athlete. The implications of these and other findings are discussed further.

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Brian A. Eiler, Rosemary Al-Kire, Patrick C. Doyle and Heidi A. Wayment

accounts with disclosures of sexual violence from the general population on Twitter during the height of the #MeToo movement. While this strategy may not be ideal, we use this comparison to inform additional analyses that further unpack athletes’ experiences of sexual abuse perpetrated by a powerful

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Lauren Reichart Smith and Kenny D. Smith

This case study, using social-identity theory as a framework, examines how sport consumers and producers used different identifiers to engage in conversation during the final games of the 2012 College World Series of baseball. Five major hashtags were noted for each baseball team as primary identifiers; users fit in 3 main groups and subgroups. The analysis of tweets revealed 5 major themes around which the conversations primarily revolved. The study has implications for social-identity theory and team identification, as well as broader implications for audience fragmentation and notions of the community of sport.

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Jimmy Sanderson

Via their social-media postings, student-athletes are increasingly creating public relations issues for college athletic programs. With social media’s emergence as a popular communication tool, exploring the messages student-athletes receive from their athletic departments about social-media use is warranted. This research examined social-media policies in student-athlete handbooks from 159 NCAA Division I schools. Using thematic and textual analytic procedures, analysis revealed that policies heavily emphasize content restrictions and external monitoring and frame social media as laden with risk. The results suggest that social-media policies should be more reflexive to identify both positive and negative outcomes for student-athletes. In addition, athletic departments must assertively monitor social-media trends to ensure that policies and training stay relevant.

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Marion E. Hambrick and Per G. Svensson

Sport organizations can use social media to build relationships with current and potential stakeholders. These opportunities are pertinent for smaller niche and sport-for-development-and-peace (SDP) organizations, which rarely receive the same media and consumer attention as their larger, more mainstream counterparts. This study examined the role of social media with 1 SDP organization and used qualitative data collection and analysis to explore what social-media platforms the staff members selected, how they used these platforms, and what benefits and challenges they faced with this use. Their identified social-media activities were 3-fold: disseminating news, promoting events, and educating stakeholders. Some hurdles arose with this use, in particular attempting to engage readers in conversations and ensuring that the posted messages uniformly relayed organizational goals. SDP and other organizations can use social media to achieve communication objectives but should recognize the potential challenges associated with these efforts.

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Jimmy Sanderson

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Ann Pegoraro

media platforms was specifically examined through the number of followers for Twitter accounts of sport teams and coaches, for the purpose of exploring how such popularity may be affected by a variety of factors including market characteristics and team performance ( Jensen, Ervin, & Dittmore, 2014

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Brody J. Ruihley, Jason Simmons, Andrew C. Billings and Rich Calabrese

-football product failing on the most anticipated day of the season, it is important to learn from the way an organization can or should communicate with consumers. Having access to one method of immediate communication, Twitter, offers the possibility for insight on the communication of an organization—as well as

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Glynn M. McGehee, Armin A. Marquez, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

content-analysis approach was used to examine social-media content delivered by GSU about the stadium-redevelopment project on Facebook and Twitter. Social media provided the points of view of both the university and the public because of its two-way communication nature. A content analysis of the