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Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete, Lucas Jurado-Fasoli, Alejandro R. Triviño, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Alejandro De-la-O, Jørn W. Helge and Jonatan R. Ruiz

protocol is considered an important factor in endurance exercise performance as well and in cardiovascular health. 5 Moreover, another important variable is the exercise intensity at which MFO occurs, so called Fat max . Both MFO and Fat max , together with maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), VO 2 max

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Scott A. Conger, Stacy N. Scott, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, Dixie L. Thompson and David R. Bassett


It is unknown if activity monitors can detect the increased energy expenditure (EE) of wheelchair propulsion at different speeds or on different surfaces.


Individuals who used manual wheelchairs (n = 14) performed 5 wheeling activities: on a level surface at 3 speeds, on a rubberized track at 1 fixed speed and on a sidewalk course at a self-selected speed. EE was measured using a portable indirect calorimetry system and estimated by an Actical (AC) worn on the wrist and a SenseWear (SW) activity monitor worn on the upper arm. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare measured EE to the estimates from the standard AC prediction equation and SW using 2 different equations.


Repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant main effect between measured EE and estimated EE. There were no differences between the criterion method and the AC across the 5 activities. The SW overestimated EE when wheeling at 3 speeds on a level surface, and during sidewalk wheeling. The wheelchair-specific SW equation improved the EE prediction during low intensity activities, but error progressively increased during higher intensity activities.


During manual wheelchair propulsion, the wrist-mounted AC provided valid estimates of EE, whereas the SW tended to overestimate EE.

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

maximal oxygen consumption, VO 2max ( Pescatello, Arena, Riebe, & Thompson et al., 2014 ), which involves having a participant/patient exercise until they reach a point of volitional fatigue. A VO 2max can be estimated using an easier, less taxing modality called a submaximal exercise test. Submaximal

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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

these questionnaires with the direct measurement of VO 2 max, the gold standard technique to measure physical fitness ( Kurtze, Rangul, & Hustvedt, 2008 ; Rangul et al., 2008 ). VO 2 max measurements are a universally accepted method to evaluate fitness. With minimal costs and highly reproducible

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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

Because of the wide range of physiological, biomechanical, and anthropometrical demands in endurance sports, specialization is often considered a prerequisite for reaching an elite performance level. As an example, marathon runners display lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) than 5- to 10-km

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Richard Latzel, Olaf Hoos, Sebastian Stier, Sebastian Kaufmann, Volker Fresz, Dominik Reim and Ralph Beneke

anaerobic energy systems is unknown. Previously, assumptions on energy demand in basketball were drawn from observation of in-game activities, 6 time–motion analyses of basketball matches, 1 , 7 – 9 and indirect estimation of oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) by heart rate (HR) measurements 10 or direct measurement

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S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael and Amanda E. Staiano

fitness in this population. In one study of adults, the degree of total and abdominal adiposity is negatively associated with the estimated VO 2 max, independent of the body mass index (BMI [ 35 ]). Contrarily, previous reviews have suggested that there is no relation between body fat and fitness ( 18

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Volker Scheer, Tanja I. Janssen, Solveig Vieluf and Hans-Christian Heitkamp

and exercise testing strategies to predict performance and improve training concepts and competition results. Values that are classically used to predict running performance include maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), percentage of VO 2 max, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and running economy. 1

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Emma M. Crum, Matthew J. Barnes and Stephen R. Stannard

). Increases in plasma NO have been associated with improvements in the efficiency of oxygen (O 2 ) use during exercise; specifically, acute BRJ intake has led to a 3–5% reduction in the O 2 uptake (VO 2 ) required to perform at a given level of submaximal cycling, and a 15–25% improvement in performance

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Ana C. Holt, Daniel J. Plews, Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Fabrice Merien and Andrew E. Kilding

to occur within 24 hours following exercise performed at <70% maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), 24 to 48 hours following exercise performed at 70% to 82% VO 2 max, and >48 hours following exercise performed at >82% VO 2 max. 2 Although research investigating athletic populations demonstrates