= phosphocreatine; PRO = protein; RFD = rate of force development; suppl. = supplementation; SV = stroke volume; VO 2 max = maximal oxygen consumption. Middle-distance race intensity is extreme, with 800- to 5,000-m races being at ∼95% to 130% of VO 2 max ( Duffield et al., 2005 ), or 75–85% of maximum sprint speed
Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield
Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning
index, 23.5 [2.1] kg/m 2 ; and VO 2max at baseline, 51.8 [6.3] mL/kg/min). Subjects were categorized in performance levels 1 (4%), 2 (57%), 3 (25%), and 4 (14%) according to VO 2max -based athlete classification norms. 10 , 11 Subjects gave written informed consent prior to the first measurements. The
Michelle S.M. Silva, Wladimir Bolani, Cleber R. Alves, Diogo G. Biagi, José R. Lemos Jr, Jeferson L. da Silva, Patrícia A. de Oliveira, Guilherme B. Alves, Edilamar M. de Oliveira, Carlos E. Negrão, José E. Krieger, Rodrigo G. Dias and Alexandre C. Pereira
To study the relationship between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and oxygen uptake (VO2) before and after exercise training.
Police recruits (N = 206, 25 ± 4 y) with RR (n = 75), RX (n = 97), and XX (n = 33) genotypes were selected. After baseline measures, they underwent 18 wk of running endurance training. Peak VO2 was obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing.
Baseline body weight was not different among genotypes. At baseline, XX individuals displayed higher VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak than did RR individuals (P < .003). Endurance training significantly increased VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak (P < 2 × 10−6), but the differences between XX and RR were no longer observed. Only relative peak VO2 exercise remained higher in XX than in RR genotype (P = .04). In contrast, the increase in relative peak VO2 was greater in RR than in XX individuals (12% vs 6%; P = .02).
ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with VO2. XX individuals have greater aerobic capacity. Endurance training eliminates differences in peak VO2 between XX and RR individuals. These findings suggest a ceiling-effect phenomenon, and, perhaps, trained individuals may not constitute an adequate population to explain associations between phenotypic variability and gene variations.
Sonja de Groot, Linda J. Valent, Richard Fickert, Babette M. Pluim and Han Houdijk
To determine the relationship between outcomes of the shuttle wheel test (SWT) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) during that test and whether SWT and VO2peak can discriminate between different skill levels of wheelchair tennis players.
Fifteen wheelchair tennis players performed an SWT on a tennis court while VO2 was measured continuously. Outcome measures were VO2peak and achieved stage. Relations between outcomes and Dutch wheelchair tennis ranking were calculated with Spearman correlation. Independent t tests were used to test for differences between national and international players.
Moderate correlations were found between VO2peak and SWT outcome (r = .40–.47). The tennis ranking correlated weakly with VO2peak (r = –.35) and strongly with SWT outcome (r = –.80). A significant difference was found between national and international players for achieved stage (P = .027) and VO2peak (P = .027).
The SWT outcome only explained a small part of the variance in VO2peak among players, so it cannot be considered a valid test for aerobic capacity. However, SWT outcomes are related to the skill level of the player and give a good indication of the overall peak wheelchair performance.
Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay
body mass 62.9 [7.8] kg, and VO 2peak 63.6 [4.4] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) participated in the study. Ethical approval was granted by the Human Research Ethics Office at the University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/8273). Informed written consent was obtained from all participants before their involvement in
Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl
Participants A total of 10 male SQT students volunteered to participate in laboratory testing and observation during MWCW training (age = 23.3 ± 1.8 years, height = 182.3 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 83.6 ± 4.5 kg, body fat = 12.5% ± 3.4%, VO 2 max = 60.0 ± 6.8 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 , and heart rate (HR) max = 190.4 ± 8
Stephen A. Ingham, Jamie S. Pringle, Sarah L. Hardman, Barry W. Fudge and Victoria L. Richmond
This study examined parameters derived from both an incremental step-wise and a ramp-wise graded rowing exercise test in relation to rowing performance.
Discontinuous step-wise incremental rowing to exhaustion established lactate threshold (LT), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2maxSTEP), and power associated with VO2max (W VO2max). A further continuous ramp-wise test was undertaken to derive ventilatory threshold (VT), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2maxRAMP), and maximum minute power (MMW). Results were compared with maximal 2000-m ergometer time-trial power.
The strongest correlation with 2000-m power was observed for MMW (r = .98, P < .001), followed by W VO2max (r = .96; P < .001). The difference between MMW and W VO2max compared with the mean of MMW/W VO2max showed a widening bias with a greater difference coincident with greater power. However, this bias was reduced when expressed as a ratio term and when a baseline VO2 was accounted for. There were no differences (P = .85) between measures of VO2maxSTEP and VO2maxRAMP; rather, the measures showed strong association (r = .97, P < .001, limits of agreement = −0.43 to 0.33 L/min). The power at LT and VT did not differ (P = .6), and a significant association was observed (r = .73, P = .001, limits of agreement = −54.3 to 20.2 W, SEE = 26.1).
This study indicates that MMW demonstrates a strong association with ergometer rowing performance and thus may have potential as an influential monitoring tool for rowing athletes.
Christopher Byrne and Jason K.W. Lee
Declaration of Helsinki. A total of 24 of the 31 participants had complete TC and HR data sets and were included in this study (mean [SD]: age = 26  y; body mass = 65.5 [6.5] kg; height = 1.72 [0.05] m; VO 2 peak = 59  [51–68] mL·kg·min −1 ). Methodology At 4 weeks prior to the race, each individual
Gustavo Monnerat, Alex S. Maior, Marcio Tannure, Lia K.F.C. Back and Caleb G.M. Santos
, VO 2 max, and recovery supported the possibility of genomic predictors affecting trainability. 7 – 11 However, few studies have examined the link between genetic factors within elite soccer players and their physiological and performance parameters. According to our hypothesis, using a complementary
Andrew M. Jones and Mark Burnley
The rate at which VO2 adjusts to the new energy demand following the onset of exercise strongly influences the magnitude of the “O2 defcit” incurred and thus the extent to which muscle and systemic homeostasis is perturbed. Moreover, during continuous high-intensity exercise, there is a progressive loss of muscle contractile efficiency, which is reflected in a “slow component” increase in VO2. The factors that dictate the characteristics of these fast and slow phases of the dynamic response of VO2 following a step change in energy turnover remain obscure. However, it is clear that these features of the VO2 kinetics have the potential to influence the rate of muscle fatigue development and, therefore, to affect sports performance. This commentary outlines the present state of knowledge on the characteristics of, and mechanistic bases to, the VO2 response to exercise of different intensities. Several interventions have been reported to speed the early VO2 kinetics and/or reduce the magnitude of the subsequent VO2 slow component, and the possibility that these might enhance exercise performance is discussed.