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Alan L. Smith

Defined as any bodily movement generated by skeletal muscles that produces energy expenditure ( Caspersen, Powell, & Christenson, 1985 ), physical activity is inherently constrained to the individual mover. Yet, physical activity is a behavior that is socially and culturally embedded. Full

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Caitlin Mason

Physical activity is important for the prevention of chronic disease morbidity and mortality, and the lack of adequate levels of physical activity represents a growing public health burden around the world. The purpose of this report is to introduce the concept of the “Physical Activity Transition” and to explore the potential effects that declining physical activity levels may play on health and life expectancy as countries undergo economic and demographic changes. Physical activity is related to mortality rates in humans, and the available evidence suggests that the adoption of a lifestyle characterized by lower levels of physical activity will attenuate the expected gains in life expectancy associated with the epidemiological transition. Advances in the measurement of physical activity at work, in the home, for transport, and in leisure time in a wide variety of populations will be integral to advancing the current understanding of how macro-level factors shape physical activity patterns and patterns of morbidity and mortality.

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Pamela K. Samra, Amanda L. Rebar, Lynne Parkinson, Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Stephanie Schoeppe, Deborah Power, Anthony Schneiders, Corneel Vandelanotte and Stephanie Alley

Increasing physical activity is important for improving both health and quality of life for older adults (65 years and older; Broekhuizen et al., 2016 ; Lee et al., 2012 ). Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of chronic disease, falls, depression, and dementia in older adults ( Ahlskog

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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

Increased levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity (PA) are beneficial for the general population, and therefore, recommended by public health institutions ( Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 ; World Health Organization, 2010 ). However, because getting people to be physically

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Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert

Physical activity programs for youth extend beyond school-based opportunities (physical education, intramurals, and recess) to encompass family, neighborhood, and community programs ( Beets, Wallner, & Beighle, 2010 ; Kohl & Cook, 2013 ). Community-based after-school programs, those that are not

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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac and Semra Topuz

Physical activity is a very important and complex behavior that plays a role in the development of health and prevention of diseases. 1 Physical activity starting before pregnancy and continuing during pregnancy has a positive effect on the additional metabolic stress caused by pregnancy, while it

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Lukas K. Gaffney, Oscar D. Lozano, Adriana Almanza, Nubia Ruiz, Alejandro Mantero and Mark Stoutenberg

Physical inactivity is gaining increasing recognition as an international public health dilemma. According to the most recent estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), 31% of the world’s population is not meeting the minimum recommendations for physical activity. 1 Physical inactivity is

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Jaehun Jung, Willie Leung, Bridgette Marie Schram and Joonkoo Yun

The benefits of engaging in physical activity have been well documented. Physical activity reduces cardiometabolic risk factors, depression ( Bassuk & Manson, 2005 ; Herring, Puetz, O’Connor, & Dishman, 2012 ), and risk of 13 types of cancers ( Moore et al., 2016 ). It also improves blood pressure

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

Research on youth participation in extracurricular activities has shown an array of benefits including better academic performance, emotion regulation, initiative, and positive social development (e.g.,  Denault & Poulin, 2016 ; Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt, 2003 ; Hansen, Skorupski, & Arrington

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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French

Up to 87% of males and 92% of females aged 65 years and older in England do not meet current guidelines of 150 min of moderate physical activity and two sessions of strength training per week ( Scholes & Mindell, 2013 ). This is despite evidence of multiple physical, psychological, and social