This paper examines the postmodernist critique of the scientific method in the specific context of adapted physical activity. Particular assumptions identified include (a) that truth must be approached through testing hypotheses, with acceptance of the most plausible explanation, (b) that underlying laws have general (if not universal) application, and (c) that the observer approaches an experiment free of bias and without interacting with the subject. Postmodernists also argue, less convincingly, that users of the scientific method are committed to reductionism, are tyrannized by the mean, and are unable to quantitate important components of disability. The overall critique raises consciousness regarding the limitations of scientific methodology and points to ways this methodology can be improved. But too often, postmodernists offer few viable alternatives to the scientific method. Too often, those who espouse postmodernism resort to convoluted semantics, using poorly defined words of uncertain etymology. Such an approach does little to help the human condition and should be rejected as a new gnostic heresy.
Deborah L. Krueger, Patrick DiRocco and Manny Felix
The purpose was to ascertain what obstacles adapted physical education (APE) specialists in Wisconsin had encountered while developing physical activity leisure transition plans (LTP) in accordance with the PL 105-17 mandate on transition services. Also addressed were the reasons why some APE specialists had not written LTPs or been involved in transition planning. Participants included 155 APE specialists representing 91 school districts in Wisconsin who returned a mailed questionnaire (i.e., a 75% return rate). Results indicated that only 21% (n = 33) of the APE specialists had written a LTP. Sixty-four percent (n = 78) of the specialists who reported not having written a LTP said that they had never been asked to be part of transition planning. APE specialists who had written LTPs indicated that transportation, social isolation, and budget restrictions were the greatest barriers.
Luis Columna, Jean Pyfer, Terry Senne, Luisa Velez, Nancy Bridenthrall and Maria Yolanda Canabal
The purpose of this study was to identify the perspectives of Hispanic parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education (APE) professionals in relationship to their child’s purposeful play and transition to school programming. Participants (N = 11) were Hispanic parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one interviews in their preferred language (Spanish or English). Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) qualified APE professionals, (b) challenges for the family, and (c) normalcy. These themes were supported by subthemes. The results indicated that Hispanic families were not as familiar with APE services as Caucasian families were. Parental expectations among Hispanic parents were similar to Caucasian parents, but the preference for modes of communication and information differed.
Peter J. Ellery and Michael J. Stewart
A survey of the 13 master’s level and five doctoral level adapted physical education programs that received federal funding in the United States in 1998 was conducted to develop a profile describing their attributes. The response rate was 100% (N = 18). Results indicated that these programs, in general, had received funding for more than 15 years, offered coursework from an average of three different academic disciplines, had a high graduate employment rate within 12 months of graduation, and had about one third of the graduates representing a recognized minority group. Master’s level teacher preparation programs were concentrated in the eastern region of the U.S., had graduates with predominantly in-state home addresses, and had graduated predominantly females. Doctoral level leadership programs were geographically distributed across the U.S., had graduates with predominantly out-of-state home addresses, and had equal graduate representation from both genders.
Øyvind F. Standal
Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.
Michelle R. Zitomer and Donna Goodwin
Qualitative inquiry is increasingly being used in adapted physical activity research, which raises questions about how to best evaluate its quality. This article aims to clarify the distinction between quality criteria (the what) and strategies (the how) in qualitative inquiry. An electronic keyword search was used to identify articles pertaining to quality evaluation published between 1995 and 2012 (n = 204). A five phase systematic review resulted in the identification of 56 articles for detailed review. Data extraction tables were generated and analyzed for commonalities in terminology and meanings. Six flexible criteria for gauging quality were formulated: reflexivity, credibility, resonance, significant contribution, ethics, and coherence. Strategies for achieving the established criteria were also identified. It is suggested that researchers indicate the paradigm under which they are working and guidelines by which they would like readers to evaluate their work as well as what criteria can be absent without affecting the research value.
Edited by Michael Horvat, Luke Kelly, Martin Block, and Ron Croce. Published 2019 by Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL. $67.00 , 280 pp., ISBN 978-1-4925-4380-0 Developmental and Adapted Physical Activity Assessment , by Michael Horvat, Luke Kelly, Martin Block, and Ron Croce, now in its second
Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer
particular mapping between their movement patterns and the stimulus shape. The real-time biofeedback was integrated into a standardized neuromuscular training program adapted from the existing literature and consisted of 6-weeks training 3 times a week. 10 Biomechanically Instrumented VR Transfer Task Sport
David L. Porretta, Paul R. Surburg and Paul Jansma
Graduates from four adapted physical education doctoral programs (1980-1999) within the United States were surveyed to determine their perceptions on the extent to which they attained published competencies in the areas of research and adapted physical education. A survey was mailed to 109 doctoral program graduates. A total of 99 surveys (91%) were usable for data analysis. Competency data were analyzed separately across two 10-year time periods (1980-1989; 1990-1999). Respondents’ perceptions improved significantly in cumulative research competency scores from the first to the second time period. Responses for adapted physical education competencies were similar across both time periods. Follow-up analyses on responses for each of the separate 18 research and 20 adapted physical education competency statements resulted in significant improvement from 1980-1989 to 1990-1999 for eight research competencies and one adapted physical education competency. Results have implications for the future of adapted physical education doctoral training in the United States and beyond.
Jeffrey A. McCubbin and John M. Dunn
This study examined the need for the preparation of leadership personnel in the area of adapted physical education within the USA. Data were collected on the advertised positions in the Chronicle of Higher Education between 1991-1998 compared to the numbers of personnel prepared during a previous, similar time period (1981-1989). During the 1991-1998 time period, 87 professionals completed dissertations related to adapted physical education, while 173 positions in institutions of higher education were advertised for professionals with expertise in adapted physical education. These data indicate that there continues to be a significant need for additional doctoral personnel trained in adapted physical education for college or university teaching positions in the United States. Evidence of a need for diversified, well-qualified training programs is offered. In addition, the authors suggest promising alternate approaches to assist in meeting the needs of qualified personnel in adapted physical education for leadership positions.