The central concern of this paper is how an adapted physical education practicum and the journal writing of that experience affected the lives of the students involved. The paper uses as its resource material the fieldwork journals of physical education students who were involved in practicum experiences with people of varying abilities and disabilities. The stories in the journals disclose something of what it is like to come to terms with others and with oneself in the “adapted” teaching-learning adventure. These disclosures will be presented thematically, the themes describing a journey through an adapted physical education practicum. The thematic composite of this journey is based upon content, critical, and thematic analyses of the data, coupled with the experiences and insights of the student collaborators. The potential for these kinds of experiences in physical education and teacher education is discussed.
Paul Jansma and Paul Surburg
This paper focuses on competency guidelines related to adapted physical education Ph.D. professional preparation in the United States with an emphasis on educational models and different orientations applicable to doctoral professional preparation. Key literature and related information are provided on teacher reform, standards, and competencies, with an emphasis on adapted physical education. The method of development, refinement, validation, and endorsement of the doctoral competencies over the course of this 6-year project precedes the listing of the final 79 competencies across two generic areas (adapted physical educator, researcher) and four other competency areas (administrator, movement scientist, advocate, pedagogue). The paper concludes with a discussion of quality control, doctoral program commonality and diversity, future competency guideline refinement efforts, and postgraduation professional development.
Jana Sklenarikova, Martin Kudlacek, Ladislav Baloun and Janice Causgrove Dunn
The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activityfrom 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physicalactivity research in Europe.
Jo E. Cowden and Carol C. Torrey
The ROADMAP (Role of Assessment Directed Movements, Actions, and Patterns) Model is presented, providing a plan of action for the adapted motor developmentalist (AMD) to assess the motor actions of young children. The emerging specialty area of the AMD requires new areas of proficiency, which are described in the ROADMAP Model. The model defines and describes inputs, processes, products, outputs, and outcomes as they relate to the process of assessment. The role of the adapted motor developmentalist as a key member in the inter- or transdisciplinary assessment process is discussed. Additionally, selected motor assessment instruments are suggested for use by the AMD.
Claudine Sherrill and Nancy Megginson
The purpose was to develop and field test a comprehensive needs assessment instrument for use in determining and prioritizing local school district adapted physical education needs. The resulting Survey of Adapted Physical Education Needs (SAPEN) was comprised of 50 items, encompassing five areas: (a) significance of physical education, (b) assessment, placement, and individualized educational programming, (c) instruction and programming, (d) personnel, and (e) other. Items were to be rated on two, 6-point Likert-type scales, relating respectively to the extent to which each adapted physical education condition now exists and should exist in one’s school district. Procedures established by Schipper and Wilson (1975) were followed in determining needs and subsequently designating them as first (most urgent), second, and third priorities to be acted upon by school district personnel. Content validity of SAPEN was established by five nationally known adapted physical education experts. Test-retest and internal reliability coefficients were determined by the Spearman Rank Correlation and Alpha Coefficient techniques respectively. Data analysis and cooperative planning follow-up procedures were field tested in a selected school district with SAPENs returned by 37 administrators, 48 physical educators, 55 special educators, and 12 parents.
Patricia L. Krebs and Martin E. Block
The mission of education is to prepare all students with and without disabilities for adult life in the community. Recent amendments to Public Law 94-142 now require transition services, which promote movement from school to postschool activities, for all students with disabilities to begin as early as age 14 and to be included in the student’s IEP. Most special education programs provide vocational, domestic, and community independent living skills training. However, the same cannot be said for lifelong sport and fitness training. A life-skills model for teaching sport and fitness skills that are chronologically age appropriate, functional, and community based is preferred to the traditional developmental approach for teaching adapted physical education. The life-skills model for teaching adapted physical education changes the setting–from school sport facilities to community sport and recreation facilities–in which adapted physical education classes are conducted. It also expands the role of the adapted physical educator from direct service provider to include transition team member, consultant to regular physical education and community sport and recreation agencies, trainer of support personnel, and environmental analyst.
Paul M. Wright, Katherine White and Deborah Gaebler-Spira
The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model (PSRM) in an adapted physical activity program. Although the PSRM was developed for use with underserved youth, scholars in the field of adapted physical activity have noted its potential relevance for children with disabilities. Using a collective case study, we explored the relevance and perceived benefits of the PSRM in an adapted martial arts program. Participants were five male children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Data sources included observational field notes, medical records, and interviews with participants’ physicians, therapists, and parents. The following themes were generated from the data: increased sense of ability, positive feelings about the program, positive social interactions, and therapeutic relevance. These results indicate that the PSRM can be made relevant to children with disabilities, especially when coupled with appealing and therapeutically relevant content.
Yeshayahu Shayke Hutzler
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a growing movement in the health and educational disciplines that recommends emphasis on research outcomes during decision making in practice. EBP is made possible through evidence based research (EBR), which attempts to synthesize the volume and scientific rigor of intervention effectiveness. With the purpose of assessing the impact of this movement on adapted physical activity, this article (a) describes EBP/EBR and outlines its methodological development, (b) provides an historical perspective of EBP/EBR in APA, (c) examines EBR quality indicators in the review literature published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, (d) identifies and synthesizes thematic domains appearing in these review articles, and (e) discusses practical examples of professional issues in APA arising from a lack of EBR.
Deborah J. Buswell, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Bettye Myers
The purpose was to examine perspectives on publication of highly productive women adapted physical activity scholars. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 women from three countries, and data were analyzed utilizing constant comparison methodology. Profiles of two groups, significantly different on publication productivity, emerged and were named highest high producers (HHP) and other high producers (OHP). Similarities between the two groups included affective domain qualities, facilitating factors, and overcoming barriers. Differences were mainly in degree of self-determination, prioritization of writing relative to significant others, collaboration, and collegiality. Based on thematic analysis of interview data, we posited the following: high publication productivity of women adapted physical activity professionals is associated with internal motivation to write, which is enhanced by positive interactions with other professionals, supportive home environments, and supportive work environments.
Claudia Emes, Patti Longmuir and Peter Downs
Adapted physical activity professionals have embraced for some time the concept of a nonmedical model; however, traditional approaches in service delivery continue to exist. Abilities-based is not a model for service delivery; it is an approach that offers a new perspective that is based on person-centerdness, openness, and compatibility. The focus is on the person in a learning situation, not the disability, not the activity, and not the environment. Although these factors cannot be ignored, emphasis in an ability-based approach shifts to the person. Attitude within and toward service delivery is the critical point of departure in the abilities-based approach. This article discusses demystifying disability and building positive attitudes as features of this approach. It then discusses the influence of this approach on how we prepare future professionals of adapted physical activity, and it concludes with an example of an abilities-based program.