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Takeshi Kokubo, Yuta Komano, Ryohei Tsuji, Daisuke Fujiwara, Toshio Fujii and Osamu Kanauchi

test; ** p < .01. Discussion In this study, oral administration of LC-Plasma for 4 weeks significantly improved the locomotor and voluntary locomotor activity after treadmill exercise. In addition, LC-Plasma affects pDC activation and attenuates TGF-β concentration and muscle degenerative genes

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Mike Stoker, Ian Maynard, Joanne Butt, Kate Hays and Paul Hughes

.e., reward, forfeit, or judgment) stressor on experiences of pressure. We hypothesized that each individual demand and consequence stressor would increase experiences of pressure and that increasing each demand stressor would negatively affect performance. Methods Participants After institutional ethics approval was

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

protein after the first session did not significantly affect this increase in fat oxidation, whereas maltodextrin intake somewhat attenuated the increase in fat oxidation during the second bout. Both PRO and CHO intake increased blood insulin levels and attenuated the postexercise ketosis seen after

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Kevin Mercier and Stephen Silverman

The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of high school students toward fitness testing. An instrument containing 18 items and four factors measuring student’s attitudes toward fitness testing: cognitive, affect-enjoyment, affect-feelings, and affect-teacher was completed by 524 boys and 675 girls (N = 1199). MANOVA indicated significant differences among the dependent variables for grade and gender. A stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated affect-feelings then affect-enjoyment as variables that predicted these differences. Follow-up tests indicated that gender, and not grade, was the cause of the significant affect-feelings differences. MANOVA for fitness test types and the follow-up DFA indicated that students who completed the FitnessGram test had significantly higher cognitive attitudes than those who completed the President’s Challenge. The results suggest that student gender and the type of fitness test impact and lead to differences in attitudes.

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Sharon R. Phillips and Stephen Silverman

This study examined the attitudes of upper elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth and fifth grade students (N = 1344) from 13 school districts, 17 schools, and five states completed an attitude instrument with scores that had been previously validated for a two factor model (affect and cognition) and a four factor model (affect and cognition with the subfactors of teacher and curriculum). For the four factor model, there was a difference between grades for both affect-curriculum and affect-teacher (F(1, 1340) = 6.25, p < .01, ηp 2 = .005). Similarly, for the two factor model the affect variable was different between grades, indication that as students age their affect toward physical education decreases (F(1, 1341)= 48.65, p < .001, ηp 2 = .035). This study suggests that upper elementary school students have an overall favorable attitude toward physical education, impacted by how they think and feel about the curriculum and teacher.

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Paul R. Ashbrook, Andrew Gillham and Douglas Barba

, theorizing that each athlete was fundamentally different and should be treated uniquely. Hanin stated that the purpose of the IZOF model was to describe, predict, and understand how individual athletes’ subjective experience affects their athletic performance. The assumption is that during any athletic

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Austin T. Robinson, Adriana Mazzuco, Ahmad S. Sabbahi, Audrey Borghi-Silva and Shane A. Phillips

multi-ingredient preworkout supplements, 4 weeks of multi-ingredient preworkout supplementation does not affect resting blood pressure (BP), even in participants taking double the manufacturer’s recommended dosage ( Joy et al., 2015 ; Vogel et al., 2015 ). However, the effects of multi

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Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti and Stefano Lazzer

conflicting results about the effects of these strategies on performance. 1 Indeed, static stretching, one of the most common strategies used, improves flexibility but can negatively affect the leg press 1 repetition maximum, muscle strength endurance, 20-m sprint performance, and vertical jump height. 2 – 5

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Nicki Winfield Almquist, Gertjan Ettema, James Hopker, Øyvind Sandbakk and Bent R. Rønnestad

-intensity efforts are of additional importance. 3 Long-duration sessions with repeated high-intensity efforts are, therefore, important components of cyclists’ competitions and training sessions. However, it is currently unknown whether inclusion of sprints during long-duration sessions affects the quality of

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Mohamed Saifeddin Fessi and Wassim Moalla

defeat compared with both a draw and a win, and a higher RPE by a small magnitude after a draw compared with a win (Figure  1 ). This result might be explained by the affective valence forceful after the win, especially since a relationship has been reported. 22 , 23 Previous studies suggest that the