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Judy L. Van Raalte, Allen E. Cornelius, Elizabeth M. Mullin, Britton W. Brewer, Erika D. Van Dyke, Alicia J. Johnson and Takehiro Iwatsuki

behavioral regulation, people who refer to themselves as “you” or “we” perform better than people who refer to themselves in the first person using “I.” Even when referring to the self consistently in the first person as “I,” the grammatical form of self-talk may affect performance. In a series of four

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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle and Jamie Poolton

nervous system ( Jones et al., 2005 ; Lazarus, 2000 ; Spielberger, 1966 ). Anxiety has been summarized as “facing uncertain or existential threat” ( Lazarus, 2000 , p. 234). Theoretical perspectives to explain the potential effects of anxiety on sport performance generally agree that anxiety affects

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Stewart Cotterill

sort of chasing your tail kind of thing. So time and access, that’s a major challenge. The amount of time available to work with the players is important as it can directly affect the scale of intervention and change the practitioner is seeking to achieve. In addition, reacting to changes in the

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Megan M. Buning

either external or internal, it is clear that motivation is a continuum, is task-specific, and is needed in a combination of types to be successful (i.e., self-determination theory). Considering available research, including factors that can negatively affect internal motivation would have been valuable

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Rebecca A. Ashley and Andrea R. Steele

, & Polman, 2018 ). Subjective well-being is composed of two separate, albeit related, components: affect and cognitive evaluation ( Diener, 1994 ). Affect refers to short-lived emotional components of well-being, while life satisfaction is an example of an individual’s longer-lasting cognitive appraisal of

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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby and Arne Nieuwenhuys

, inferior strength and conditioning, or the psychological and behavioral factors that can negatively affect their oppositions’ performance ( Den Hartigh, Gernigon, Van Yperen, Marin, & Van Geert, 2014 ). In particular, athletes may appraise an opponent’s psychological state and attempt to induce

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Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny

in several ways. First, ST can affect performance even without the performer’s awareness that a stereotype has been activated ( Steele, 2011 ). That means that even if people do not think about the stereotype on a conscious level, the stereotype can hinder their performance ( Levy, 1996 ; Shih

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Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte and Albert J. Petitpas

warm-up. Thus, it appears that in Studies 1 and 2, the mental warm-up affected psychological readiness in a manner analogous to the way physical warm-ups can affect physical readiness to engage in sport activities. The results of Studies 2 and 3, the latter of which used a single-group repeated

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Martin J. Turner, Gillian Aspin, Faye F. Didymus, Rory Mack, Peter Olusoga, Andrew G. Wood and Richard Bennett

the key cognitive mediators between a situation (or inferences about a situation) and affective and behavioral reactivity ( Ellis & Ellis, 2018 ). To reflect this cognitive mediation model, a GABCDE framework is used to help clients become aware of the role that rational and irrational beliefs play in

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Judy L. Van Raalte, Lorraine Wilson, Allen Cornelius and Britton W. Brewer

 al., 2016 ) and that within-sport contextual variation affects the efficacy of self-talk such that benefits of self-talk accrue when athletes are most under pressure. With regard to effort, it is interesting to note that the self-talk groups did not differ from each other in terms of effort during their