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Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey and Con Burns

-old) were selected for testing. Testing age-groups, similar to those assessed by Project Energize were selected (6-year-old and 10-year-old cohorts), as these age groups have been highlighted as important developmental periods during childhood. The 6-year-old cohort was selected, as this will allow the

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Shirley M. Bluethmann, Wayne Foo, Renate M. Winkels, Scherezade K. Mama and Kathryn H. Schmitz

/ethnicity, age group, marital status, and educational status) and behavioral/clinical risk factors (e.g., multimorbidity, perceived disability, body mass index [BMI]). In consideration of age-related subgroups, the youngest age group (45–54 years) was used as the reference group in regression models to compare

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Thomas Cattagni, Vincent Gremeaux and Romuald Lepers

. She was a French white, retired beautician, and was living in Burgundy, France. Her anthropometric characteristics are displayed in Table  1 . DL had broken 3 world records (3000-, 5000-, and 10,000-m running) in the 80-to-84-year-old age-group category, by the age of 80. For example, her record in 10

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Tamara Vehige Calise, William DeJong, Timothy Heren, Chloe Wingerter and Harold W. Kohl III

control. 8 Evidence increasingly indicates that physical activity can extend years of active independent living, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life for older people. 4 Yet, older age groups (60 y and older) are less likely than their younger counterparts to be regularly active, and women

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

-water competitions. Nonconventional Races The world of OWS includes races longer than 25 km, such as the Marathon-Swim Lake Zurich, Manhattan Island Swim, and Maratona del Golfo Capri-Napoli, performed by elite and age-group athletes. In the Marathon-Swim Lake Zurich (26 km), participation has increased over the

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Abbey C. Thomas, Janet E. Simon, Rachel Evans, Michael J. Turner, Luzita I. Vela and Phillip A. Gribble

pain were statistically significant between groups for all decade of age categories (Table  2 ). Table 1 Number (Percent of Age Group Sample) of Respondents Who Have Been Diagnosed With Knee OA for Each Group and Decade of Age Knee surgery Knee injured Uninjured Decade of age OA No OA OA No OA OA No OA

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Angela Heidenfelder, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph A. Rüst and Beat Knechtle

Purpose:

To examine pacing strategies of ultracyclists competing in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM), the world’s longest ultracycling race, covering ~4860 km from the West to the East coast of America.

Methods:

Age, cycling speed at and across time stations, race distance, relative difference in altitude between time stations, wind velocity, wind gradient, and temperature at each time station were recorded for women and men competing from 2010 to 2014. Changes in cycling speed and power output of elite and age-group finishers were analyzed using mixed-effects regression analyses.

Results:

Cycling speed decreased across time stations for women and men where men were faster than women. Power output decreased across time stations in women and men and was lower for women for all finishers, the annual 3 fastest, and age group 60–69 y but not for age groups 18–49 and 50–59 y. The change in temperature and altitude had an influence on cycling speed and power output in all finishers, the annual top 3, nonfinishers, and in all different age groups for both women and men but in the age group 50–59 y altitude had no influence on cycling speed.

Conclusions:

Positive pacing (ie, decrease in speed throughout the race) seemed to be the adequate strategy in the RAAM. The top 3 finishers started faster and had a higher power output at the start than less successful competitors, achieved the highest peak cycling speeds and power output, and maintained peak cycling speed and power output longer before slowing down.

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Jason N. Bocarro, Myron Floyd, Robin Moore, Perver Baran, Tom Danninger, William Smith and Nilda Cosco

Background:

To better measure physical activity (PA) in outdoor environments, McKenzie and colleagues developed the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). However, previous SOPARC research has focused on adults, seniors, teens and children. One avenue for extending this work is to expand the child age group code to capture important nuances that can influence children's PA and their environments. This study reports on the reliability of a measure designed to account for PA in parks among children in different childhood age groups.

Methods:

Three groups were developed: 0 to 5 years old (Young Children); 6 to 12 (Middle Childhood) and 13 to 18 (Older Children) based on Erikson's stages of child development. Data were obtained by direct observation in 3 neighborhood parks in Raleigh, NC and 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, NC.

Results:

Kappa coefficients showed high agreement for all age group, gender, and PA codes. For the 3 assessments, the results show that the 3 age group category exhibit acceptable reliability for measuring PA in parks among children.

Conclusions:

The reliability of measuring PA among children by segmenting children by 3 age groups was established. This approach is recommended for future studies of PA among children in parks and other outdoor environments.

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Caroline W. Stegink Jansen, Bruce R. Niebuhr, Daniel J. Coussirat, Dana Hawthorne, Laura Moreno and Melissa Phillip

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the impact of age and gender on 4 measures of grip and pinch force of well elderly community dwellers and to provide normative values. The hypotheses were that age and gender affect pinch and grip force and that these 2 factors might interact. Hand strength of 224 seniors 65–92 years old was tested. Grip and pinch force decreased in successively older age groups past 65 years. Men’s grip force exceeded that of women in all age groups. Men’s hand-force decline was steeper than that of women over successive age groups, suggesting that gender differences in force decreased with age. Trends were the same for all 4 types of grip- and pinch-force measurement but were most clearly visible in grip and key-pinch force. Norms were provided for seniors age 65–85+ years in 5-yr increments.

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Richelle M. Williams, Trevor Rice, Kenneth Lam and Tamara Valovich McLeod

Postural control is an integral part of sport participation and is often measured when assessing concussion and rehabilitating musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether developmental differences in postural control, as measured by the Stability Evaluation Test protocol, exist between multiple male age groups (9–25-years-old). Significant differences were present across age groups, suggesting pediatric males demonstrated higher sway velocity scores than older males. We also found that preadolescent males showed increased postural sway when compared with older populations. Overall, it was found that age-related differences exist in postural control, with older males demonstrating less sway, and therefore better postural control.